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Unformatted text preview: 1 Fermented Foods and Beverages Set Nutrient Goals What level of nutrients should each food intake pattern strive for? • Goals based on Dietary Reference Intakes* and/or Dietary Guidelines standards for • 9 Vitamins • 8 Minerals • 8 Macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fats) • Separate nutrient goals set for each age/sex group based on their needs *From the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine 1. Protein 2. Carbohydrate 3. Fiber 4. Total fat 5. Linoleic acid 6. Linolenic acid 7. Cholesterol (“as low as possible”) 8. Saturated fat (“as low as possible”) Macronutrients: Fermentation Fermentation is the "slow decomposition process of organic substances induced by micro-organisms, or by enzymes of plant or animal origin" . It can be described as a biochemical change, which is brought about by the anaerobic or partially anaerobic oxidation of food by either micro- organisms or enzymes. This is distinct from putrefaction, which is the degradation of food materials. The science of fermentation is known as zymology . Fermentation (food) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2 Micro-organisms responsible for food fermentations The most common groups of micro- organisms involved in food fermentations are: Bacteria Yeasts Molds Common Food Fermentations 1. Lactic acid fermentations. 2. High salt/savory meat-Favored/amino acid/ peptide sauce and paste fermentations. 3. Alcoholic fermentations. 4. Acetic Acid fermentations. 5. Other mixed fermentations. Food fermentation serves ¡ve main purposes 1. Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of ¢avors, aromas, and textures in food substrates. 2. Nutritional enrichment of food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and vitamins. 3. Preservation of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acid and alkaline fermentations. 4. Detoxi¡cation during food-fermentation processing. 5. A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements. History Since fruits ferment naturally, fermentation precedes human history. Since prehistoric times, however, humans have been taking control of the fermentation process. The earliest evidence of winemaking dates from 6000 BC, in Georgia , the former Soviet Republic. 7000 year old jars of wine have been excavated in the Zagros Mountains in Iran, which are now on display at the University of Pennsylvania . There is strong evidence that people were fermenting beverages in Babylon circa 5000 BC , ancient Egypt circa 3150 BC , pre-Hispanic Mexico circa 2000 BC , and Sudan circa 1500 BC . There is also evidence of leavened bread in ancient Egypt circa 1500 BC and of milk fermentation in Babylon circa 3000 BC . The Chinese were probably the first to develop vegetable fermentation....
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2009 for the course FST FST 10 taught by Professor Shoemaker during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.
- Spring '09