Chapt 1-Geography As A Field Of Learning

Chapt 1-Geography As A Field Of Learning - CHAPTER 1...

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CHAPTER 1 Geography as a Field of Learning Physical Geogra phy Field of knowledge that studies natural features and phenomena on the Earth from a spatial perspective. Human Geography Field of knowledge that studies human-made features and phenomena on the Earth from a spatial perspective. Physical Geography Human Geography Rocks and Minerals Population Landforms Settlements Soils Economic Activities Animals Transportation Plants Recreational Activities Water Religion Atmosphere Political Systems Rivers and Other Water Bodies Social Traditions Environment Human Migration Climate and Weather Agricultural Systems Oceans Urban Systems
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The Environmental Spheres Lithosphere- which contains all of the cold, hard, solid rock of the planet's crust (surface), the hot semi-solid rock that lies underneath the crust, the hot liquid rock near the center of the planet, and the solid iron core (center) of the planet Hydrosphere- which contains all of the planet's solid, liquid, and gaseous water Biosphere- which contains all of the planet's living organisms Atmosphere- which contains all of the planet's air These spheres are closely connected. For example, many birds (biosphere) fly through the air (atmosphere), while water (hydrosphere) often flows through the soil (lithosphere). In fact, the spheres are so closely connected that a change in one sphere often results in a change in one or more of the other spheres. The Solar System The Jovian Planets- The inner planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The Jovian planets are the most massive planets: at least 15 times the mass of the Earth. The Jovian planets are also relatively low in density: at most 1700 kilograms/meter 3 . Gas giants all have dense, turbulent, and relatively deep atmospheres consisting largely of hydrogen and helium. The Terrestrial Planets- The outer planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The terrestrial planets are lower in mass than the Jovian planets: Earth is the most massive terrestrial planet. The terrestrial planets are also relatively high in density: at
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least 3900 kg/m 3 , consistent with their being made of a mixture of rock and metal. Diverse but relatively shallow atmospheres. Size and Shape of Earth Earth is the largest of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System in diameter, mass and density. The average diameter of the reference spheroid is about 12,742 km. The Earth's shape is very close to an oblate spheroid—a rounded shape with a bulge around the equator. The rotation of the Earth creates the equatorial bulge so that the equatorial diameter is 43 km larger than the pole to pole diameter. Relative to its large size, the height and depth of its surface features (mountains, trenches) are quit small. The Geographic Grid
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2008 for the course CJC 101 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '07 term at Ball State.

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Chapt 1-Geography As A Field Of Learning - CHAPTER 1...

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