Chapter 13-Introduction to Landform Study

Chapter 13-Introduction to Landform Study - Chapter 13:...

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Chapter 13: Introduction to Landform Study I. The Unknown Interior A. vertical structure of the Earth 1. crust : outermost solid layer of the Earth a. thicker below continents than oceans 1) oceanic crust ~5-6 miles thick 2) continental crust > 3 times thicker b. Moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity): boundary between the crust and mantle below 2. mantle : layer of the Earth’s interior between the crust and the core; extends downward ~ 1,800 miles a. lithosphere : rigid outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and upper mantle b. asthenosphere : plastic layer of the mantle that underlies the lithosphere c. mesosphere: lower mantle where rocks are again rigid 3. outer core : molten shell that underlies the mantle 4. inner core : solid, very dense center of the Earth composed of iron/nickel or iron/silicate B. Geographers Focus on the Surface 1. geographers focus on the zone of human habitation 2. interest in how deeper portion influences topography and other surface features II. Composition of the Crust A. intro 1. minerals : naturally formed inorganic compounds and elements that have a specific chemical composition and characteristic crystal structure 2. magma : molten material in Earth’s interior 3. rock : solid material formed of aggregated mineral particles 4. outcrop : surface exposure of bedrock 5. bedrock : residual rock that has not experienced erosion B. Igneous Rocks 1. igneous rock : rock formed by solidification of molten magma a. shared trait: all have crystalline structure b. slow cooling large crystals; very coarse-grained appearance c. rapid cooling small, even microscopic crystals 2. extrusive igneous rocks: molten rock ejected onto Earth’s surface, solidifying quickly in the open air; also called volcanic rocks a. ejection of lava from volcanoes b. oozing of magma from fissures c. accumulation of volcanic ash and cinder d. basalt : dark, fine-grained; most common extrusive igneous rocks 3. intrusive igneous rocks: rocks that cool and solidify beneath Earth’s surface Chapter 13: Introduction to Landform Study – p. 1 of 5
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a. also called plutonic rocks b. originally buried intrusive rocks may subsequently come to surface by being pushed up or by being exposed by erosion c. granite : light colored, coarse-grained; most common intrusive igneous rocks C. Sedimentary Rocks
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2008 for the course CJC 101 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '07 term at Ball State.

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Chapter 13-Introduction to Landform Study - Chapter 13:...

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