Ch 1-3 - Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective The...

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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective The race-conflict approach- a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories The symbolic-interaction approach Macro-level orientation- a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole Micro-level orientation-a close up focus on social interaction in specific situations Symbolic-interaction approach- a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals Society is nothing more that the shared reality that people construct as they interact with one another Reality-how we define our surroundings, our obligations toward others, and even our own identity Erving Goffman- dramaturgical analysis George Homans and Peter Blau- social exchange analysis Applying the approaches: the Sociology of Sports The functions of Sports Structural-functional approach- sports help society operate Social-conflict approach- games that people play reflect social standing Chapter 2: Sociological Investigation Basics of sociological investigation Science- a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation Empirical evidence-information we can verify with our senses Scientific sociology- the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior Positivism- scientific orientation to knowing
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Concept- a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form Variable- a concept whose value changes from case to case Measurement – a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case Operationalize a variable- specifying exactly what Is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable Reliability- consistency in measurement Validity-actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure Cause and effect- a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another Independent variable- the variable that cause the change Dependent variable- the variable that changes Allows us to predict the outcome of future events Correlation- a relationship in which two(or more) variables change together Spurious correlation- an apparent but false relationship between two (or more)
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2009 for the course SOC 1004 taught by Professor Mdhughes during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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Ch 1-3 - Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective The...

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