Ch 4-5 - Chapter 4 Society refers to people who interact in a define territory and share a culture 4 important sociologists Gerhard Lenski describes how

Ch 4-5 - Chapter 4 Society refers to people who interact in...

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Chapter 4 Society: refers to people who interact in a define territory and share a culture 4 important sociologists Gerhard Lenski describes how societies have changed over the past 1000 years importance of technology in shaping any society Karl Marx Social conflict that arises as people work within an economic system to produce material goods Max Weber How the power of ideas shapes society Emile Durkheim How different ways that traditional and modern societies hang together Gerhard Lenski- 5 types of societies, define by their technology Hunting and Gathering Societies Hunting and gathering- making use of simple tools to hunt animals an gather vegetation for food Nomadic H&G societies depend on the family to do many things Get an distribute food Protect its members Teach the children
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Usually have a shaman- spiritual leader Enjoys high prestige but has to work to find food like everyone else Use simple weapons Believe that many spirits inhabit the world Horticultural and Pastoral Societies Horticulture- the use of hand tools to raise crops Horticulturalists formed settlements Pastoralism- the domestication of animals Pastoralists remained nomadic Material surplus- more resources that are needed to support the population Horticulture and pastoral societies have greater inequality (elites using gov’t power and military force) to serve their own interests Horticulturalists- think of one God as the creator of the world Pastoralists see God as directly involved in the well-being of the entire world Agrarian Societies Agriculture- large scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources Inventions: animal- drawn plow, irrigation, wheel, writing, numbers, the use of various metals Bc of the inventions, farmers could work the same land for generations, thus encouraging the development of permanent settlements
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People invented money as a common standard of exchange Have extreme social inequality In most cases, a large number of people are peasants or slaves, and do most of the work In H&G and horticulture societies, woman provided most of the food, thus they have social importance In agrarian societies, men have social dominance- use heavy metal plow- men take charge of food production Religion reinforces the power of elites by defining both loyalty and hard work as moral obligations Industrial Societies Industrialism- the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery Industrialization drew people away from home to factories situated near energy sources that power their machinery Result= a weakening of close working relationships, strong family ties, and many of the traditional values, beliefs, and customs that guide agrarian life Postindustrial Societies Post industrialism- coined by Daniel Bell (p.95, the production of
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