Chapter 4 ✽ Society: refers to people who interact in a define territory and share a culture ✽ 4 important sociologists Gerhard Lenski • describes how societies have changed over the past 1000 years • importance of technology in shaping any society Karl Marx • Social conflict that arises as people work within an economic system to produce material goods Max Weber • How the power of ideas shapes society Emile Durkheim • How different ways that traditional and modern societies hang together Gerhard Lenski- 5 types of societies, define by their technology ✽ Hunting and Gathering Societies Hunting and gathering- making use of simple tools to hunt animals an gather vegetation for food Nomadic H&G societies depend on the family to do many things • Get an distribute food • Protect its members • Teach the children
Usually have a shaman- spiritual leader • Enjoys high prestige but has to work to find food like everyone else Use simple weapons Believe that many spirits inhabit the world ✽ Horticultural and Pastoral Societies Horticulture- the use of hand tools to raise crops • Horticulturalists formed settlements Pastoralism- the domestication of animals • Pastoralists remained nomadic Material surplus- more resources that are needed to support the population Horticulture and pastoral societies have greater inequality (elites using gov’t power and military force) to serve their own interests Horticulturalists- think of one God as the creator of the world Pastoralists see God as directly involved in the well-being of the entire world ✽ Agrarian Societies Agriculture- large scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources Inventions: animal- drawn plow, irrigation, wheel, writing, numbers, the use of various metals • Bc of the inventions, farmers could work the same land for generations, thus encouraging the development of permanent settlements
People invented money as a common standard of exchange Have extreme social inequality • In most cases, a large number of people are peasants or slaves, and do most of the work In H&G and horticulture societies, woman provided most of the food, thus they have social importance • In agrarian societies, men have social dominance- use heavy metal plow- men take charge of food production Religion reinforces the power of elites by defining both loyalty and hard work as moral obligations ✽ Industrial Societies Industrialism- the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery Industrialization drew people away from home to factories situated near energy sources that power their machinery • Result= a weakening of close working relationships, strong family ties, and many of the traditional values, beliefs, and customs that guide agrarian life ✽ Postindustrial Societies Post industrialism- coined by Daniel Bell (p.95, the production of
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