Ch 14-15 - Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity The Social Meaning...

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Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity Race h Race is a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important h People may classify one another racially based on physical characteristics such as skin color, facial features, hair texture, and body shape h Physical diversity appeared as a result of living in different geographical regions of the world h Migration h U.S people tend to “see” 3 racial categories- typically, black, white and Asian h The meanings and importance of race not only differ from place to place but also change over time h Racial Types 3 racial types Caucasoid Negroid Mongoloid The 3 racial categories differ in only 6% of their genes, and there is actually more genetic variation within each category than between categories h A Trend toward Mixture 2000 census, almost 7 million people described themselves by checking 2 or more racial categories Ethnicity h Ethnicity is a shared cultural heritage h Define themselves based on common ancestry, language, or religion that gives them a distinctive social identity h More than 52 million (19% of the U.S population) speak some language other than English in their homes
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Race- biological traits h Ethnicity- cultural traits Minorities h Minority- any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates h Minority standing can be based on race, ethnicity, or both h Minorities have 2 distinctive characteristics They share a distinctive identity, which may be based on physical or cultural traits Minorities experience subordination U.S minorities typically have lower income, lower occupational prestige, and limited schooling Class, race, ethnicity, and gender, are overlapping and reinforcing dimensions of social stratification Race or ethnicity often serves as a master status that overshadows personal accomplishments Prejudice and Stereotypes h Prejudice- a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people h Prejudices are prejudgments that can be either positive or negative h Negative prejudice can be expressed as anything from mild dislike to outright hostility h Not only degrades the person who exaggerates hateful language but also harms the person who is targeted h Often take the form of stereotype- a simplified description applied to every person in some category Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale h Social distance- a good measure of prejudice, how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category h Emory Bogardus developed the social distance scale h Bogardus found that people felt much more social distance from some categories than from others
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Ch 14-15 - Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity The Social Meaning...

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