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Soc 202 Ch 5 Outline revised

Soc 202 Ch 5 Outline revised - Chapter 5 Groups and...

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Chapter 5 - Groups and Organizations Detailed Outline I. Social Groups A social group is two or more people who identify and interact with one another. A. Primary and Secondary Groups 1. A primary group is a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships. People in primary groups share many activities, spend a great deal of time together, and feel they know one another well. The family is every society’s most important primary group. Members think of the group as an end in itself rather than as a means to other ends and they view each other as unique and irreplaceable. 2. Secondary groups are large and impersonal social groups devoted to some specific interest or activity. They involve weak emotional ties; they are commonly short-term; they are goal oriented; and they are typically impersonal. B. Group Leadership 1. Two Leadership Roles Groups typically benefit from two kinds of leadership: Instrumental leadership refers to group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks. Expressive leadership focuses on collective well-being. 2. Three Leadership Styles Sociologists also characterize leadership in terms of its decision-making style. There are three styles: a. Authoritarian leadership focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision making, and demands strict compliance from subordinates. b. Democratic leadership is more expressive and tries to include everyone in the decision-making process. c. Laissez-faire leadership allows the group to function more or less on its own. C. Group Conformity Groups influence the behavior of their members, often promoting conformity. 1. Asch’s Research Asch’s research into group conformity showed that many of us are willing to compromise our own judgment and to avoid being different, even from people we do not know. 2. Milgram’s Research Milgram’s research into obedience suggests that people are likely to follow directions from not only “legitimate authority figures,” even when it means inflicting harm on another person. 3. Janis’s “Groupthink” Janis’s research involved what he called groupthink , the tendency of group members to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue.
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