Organic Chemistry Final Study

Organic Chemistry Final Study - Organic Chemistry Final...

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Organic Chemistry Final Study - know how to fill an orbital diagram - number of unshared pairs is 4-(shared pairs) - Formal Charge = [Valence of neutral atom]-[# of bonds + # of non-bonding electrons] - Know how to specify hybridization of atom (sp to sp3) - Give IUPAC name - Draw resonance structures - Stability of Newman Projections (staggered is more stable (and lower energy) than gauche or eclipsed) - Stability of chair confirmations (equatorial is more stable than axial) - Draw curved arrows to show flow of electrons in reaction, draw products when shown flow of electrons - Name and draw alkenes using E/Z (E is trans, Z is cis) - Determine degree of unsaturation (# of rings + # of double bonds) - Which direction reaction is favored at equilibrium (towards higher pKa) - Stronger acid has lower pKa - Frunctional groups o Ketone (double bond to O with R group on either side) o Carboxylic acid (double bond to ) with R group on one side and OH on other) o Alcohol (single bond to OH) o Aldehyde (double bond to O with R group on one side and H on other) - torsional strain is strain caused by eclipsed bonds - steric strain is strain caused by 2 groups coming to close together - ring flips (equatorial becomes axial and vice versa) - label free energy diagram o transition states are peeks o intermediates are troughs o if products are lower than reactants ΔG < 0 (exergonic) and Keq > 1 - most stable alkene has tetrasub, a C on each of its 4 bonds - hydride shift can at halogen to more stable carbocation - hydride shift: - 1) BH3, THF 2) H2O2, H2O, OH- o Breaks double bond and adds H and OH in cis fashion with H on more
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Organic Chemistry Final Study - Organic Chemistry Final...

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