Psy exam 2 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Chapter 4 – Developing...

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Chapter 4 – Developing through the Life Span 1) What do developmental psychologists study? Studies physical, cognitive, & social change throughout the life span, womb to tomb. 2) What occurs during prenatal development? A zygote>embryo>fetus >birth a baby. What are the differences between a zygote, embryo, and fetus? Zygote -conception to 2 weeks, embryo -2 weeks to 2 months, fetus -9 weeks to birth. 3) What are teratogens? Teratorgens -viruses & chemicals that can reach the embryo/fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. What is FAS and what are some of its effects? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- physical & cognitive disabilities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. Effects-small misproportioned head & lifelong brain abnormalities. 4) Describe some of the newborn abilities: rooting reflexes -a baby’s tendency when touched on the check to turn toward the touch open its mouth and search for the nipple, preferences for faces -babies tend to be fascinated by faces and are able to make them out before anything else, sounds -babies turn their head in the direction of sound and are calmed by the sound of their mother’s voice, habituation - decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. 5) What other cognitive developments are occurring during infancy? Piaget said children’s reasoning develops in stages & they construct/modify their understandings as they interact w/the world. They form schemas (concept/framework for organizing/interpreting info). They then assimilate (interpret) info by means of their schemas or if it’s new info they accommodate (adjust) the schema to include the new info. 6) What is maturation ? Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience 7) Describe Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development, and understand what occurs in each stage (see table 4.1 on pg. 148 for help): Sensorimotor -from birth to 2 years, infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities ( object permanence -awareness that things exist even when not perceived (peek a boo), stranger anxiety -fear of strangers that infants display which begins at 8 months) Preoperational -from 2-7 years old, a child learns to use language but can’t comprehend the mental operations of concrete knowledge. ( pretend play - pretending while you play, egocentrism -child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view, language -speaking/how we communicate) concrete operational -from 7-11 years old, children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events ( conservation -principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the form of the object) formal operational -age 12, people thing logically about abstract concepts.
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