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Unformatted text preview: The Rise of Nationalism The What Is Nationalism? Feelings based on shared culture, heritage and historical experience Desire to maintain the same through various means Modern African Nationalism Even after the establishment of colonial rule, Africans displayed their dissatisfaction with and resistance to occupation Took a variety of forms based on the territory or colonial ruler Fueled by several factors Colonial Oppression Humiliated and deprived of their own land Revolts were met with brutal suppressions Independence was the ultimate goal Missionary Churches Three Goals Literacy Western Values Raise level of productivity Had a profound effect on Africa Served as a catalyst for nationalism Educated Africans to fight for rights Made them want to succeed in modern world Nationalistic Leaders Jomo Kenyatta Spent years in England gaining support for native Kenyans Imprisoned for the Mau Mau uprising in 1952 First President of Kenya (1964 – 1978) WW I and WW II African war veterans 3 million served in both wars fighting against German and Italian imperialism imperialism African from different regions served together and fostered nationalism Were not rewarded for service Colonial immigrants flocked to Africa post WW II and were given great tracts of land tracts Pan-Africanism Catalysts for the movement Henry-Sylvester-Williams Marcus Garvey W.E.B. DuBois First black to be awarded a doctoral degree from Harvard Organizer of the Pan-African Conferences Influenced the growth of African nationalism Pan-African Objectives Protest racism Instrument for anti-colonial struggle to bring about African rule for Africans Africans Inspiration for future federated Africa Organization of African Unity (OAU) – now the African Union (AU) Pan-African Conferences Series of five conference held to promote and legitimize the tenets of the Pan-African movement Pan-African Modern African Nationalism League of Nations Born out of the destruction from WW I Colonies of Germany and Italy were to be transferred and eventually given self-rule self-rule Things did not really change Italy invaded Ethiopia Haile Selassie called on League to take action League doomed to failure WW II broke out United Nations Founded at the end of WW II Mission Maintain world peace Develop good relations between countries Promote cooperation in solving the world’s problems Encourage respect for human rights Italy lost all its territories Eritrea given to Ethiopia Was the vehicle for African independence Independence Movements Independence movements were slow to form because of the European creation of nation-states without regard to ethnicity of Nationalism asserted itself in force after WW II Channeled through seven social/economic groups Professional Groups (doctors. lawyers Petty bourgeoisie (teachers, clerks, small merchants) Colonial bureaucracy Urban workers (wanted better working conditions) Informal merchants (small shopkeepers, hawkers) Cash crop farmers (some very wealthy) Peasant farmers (grew what food crops were available) Struggle waged in part by organized associations Trade Unions Religious Organizations Welfare Organizations Political Parties Summary Freedom had to be demanded Many leaders of independent Africa spent time in colonial jails The struggle for independence was mediated through the following factors Education Church Pan-African movement League of Nations and the UN ...
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- Spring '09