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psych635-week3individual-michaila

psych635-week3individual-michaila - Developmental...

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Developmental Psychologists Employing Shaping 1 Developmental Psychologists Employing Shaping and Chaining, Reinforcement Schedules and One-Trial Learning Michaila Shaak Psych 635: Psychology of Learning August 10, 2015 Professor Rebecca Singer
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Developmental Psychologists Employing Shaping 2 Developmental Psychologists Employing Shaping and Chaining, Reinforcement Schedules and One-Trial Learning Teaching children new tasks can be a difficult process which can become even more challenging if the child in question has been diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Because of their individual challenges, needs and sensory aversions, teaching a child on the ASD spectrum to engage in desired behaviors can be upsetting and stressful for both the child and the parent or teacher. The ultimate goal of developmental psychologists examining this topic would be to identify the best possible methods and ways to implement those methods to help these children to learn new and helpful behaviors while causing the least amount of stress possible. Though different methods might be better suited to children depending on their specific capabilities and delays, they are no new or innovative. Instead, basic operant and classical conditioning learning methods, utilized by B.F. Skinner and Pavlov, are helpful in reaching the aforementioned goals. Shaping behavioral and developmental interventions of ASD children based on these basic principles of learning is called Applied Behavioral Analysis (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). This paper will touch upon the concepts of shaping and chaining, reinforcement schedules, and one-trial learning as they are understood and utilized in the teaching of ASD children. Shaping and Chaining Shaping and chaining both processes which work towards the desired behavior using baby steps. Both of these methods were implemented by B.F. Skinner in his research of operant conditioning with animals (Schunk, 2012). In shaping, behaviors that an animal naturally
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