Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - CHAPTER8:METABOLISM The chemistry of life is...

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CHAPTER 8: METABOLISM The chemistry of life is organized into metabolic pathways Organisms transform energy The energy transformations of life are subject to two laws of thermodynamics Organisms live at the expense of free energy ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions Metabolism: catabolism, anabolism Enzymes: biological catalysts, usually proteins Regulation of pathways of reactions
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generalized to movement of nearly all forms of energy. First law: energy is always conserved. Second law: entropy (randomness) is always increased. (Both laws have several caveats) Consider the system : open vs. closed As always, any system tends to move to a state of lower energy. To incorporate the two laws, define the Gibbs free energy, G: G = H – TS when H is the enthalpy (heat), S is the entropy, and T is the temperature of the system. Or, for a system comparing final and initial states (by definition, always final – initial): ΔG = ΔH – TΔS for an isothermal transformation. Know:
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Chapter 8 - CHAPTER8:METABOLISM The chemistry of life is...

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