Chapter 2 Genetics

Chapter 2 Genetics - Chapter 2 Genetics Mendelian Genetics...

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Chapter 2: Genetics Mendelian Genetics - Using pea plants, Mendel discovered how inheritance works o He isolated a number of traits with only two variants o He performed a large number of crosses to determine which peas were true breeding - He made two conclusions o The phenotype is determined by 2 genes, one from each parent o Each of these 2 genes are equally likely to be transmitted (independent assortment) - Mendel’s discoveries were not acknowledged for almost 40 years, during which time other scientists came to conduct the same experiments o During these years, the chromosome was discovered These chromosomes that are replicated in a special kind of cell division that creates gametes provided an explanation for Mendel’s results Cell Division and the Role of Chromosomes in Inheritance Mitosis and Meiosis - The process of ordinary cell division is called mitosis o In diploid organisms, chromosomes come in homologous pairs o 2 features of mitosis suggest its importance in determining the properties of organisms Each daughter cell is identical to its parent The material that makes up each chromosome is present even when cells are not dividing - In meiosis, only half of the parents’ chromosomes are transmitted to the daughter cell o Produces gametes with only one copy of each chromosome a haploid cell that will combine with another haploid cell to produce a diploid zygote Chromosomes and Mendel’s Experimental Results - Walter Sutton made the logical connection between Mendel’s properties of inheritance and - Alleles: varieties of genes with the same effect on the organisms o Homozygous: individuals with 2 copies of the same allele o Heterozygous: 2 different alleles - Phenotype: observable characteristics; genotype: particular combination of genes or alleles - Punnett square: a diagram used to visualize the results of crosses
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2009 for the course ANTH 200Lg taught by Professor Yamashita during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Chapter 2 Genetics - Chapter 2 Genetics Mendelian Genetics...

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