Exam 2 Review

Exam 2 Review - ANTH 200Lg: The Origins of Humanity Dr....

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ANTH 200Lg: The Origins of Humanity Dr. Roberto Delgado Office Hours: 12:45-1:45pm, Tuesdays and Thursdays, OR by appointment 213.740.4395 radelgad@usc.edu Review Questions for Exam #2 – TUE, OCT 28 TH The second exam will be mixed-format questions (e.g. fill-in, matching, multiple choice, short answer, true/false). You are responsible for both lecture and material from the text (Chapters 5-9), as well as those AE readings discussed specifically in lab sections (i.e. AE 9-12). Also take advantage of on-line resources such as http://www.wwnorton.com/web/evolve/ Define and give an example of the following: Heterodontism : different kinds of teeth Reasoning by analogy : the idea that natural selection leads to similar organisms in similar environments Reasoning by homology : the idea that closely related species tend to be similar morphologically because of shared traits acquired through descent from a common ancestor Frugivory : primates who rely most heavily on fruit in their diets Folivory : primates who rely most heavily on foliage in their diets Mating systems : the way animals find mates and care for offspring Social systems : the way animals interact with each other Scramble competition : occurs when resources are distributed evenly across the landscape so that animals cannot effectively monopolize access to them Contest competition : occurs when resources are limited and can be monopolizd profitably, generating direct confrontations over them Cathemerality : when animals are active at various intervals throughout the day and night Sexual selection : a special kind of natural selection that favors traits that increase success in competition for mates Altruistic behavior : behavior that lowers the fitness of the actor, but raises the fitness of the recipient Selfish behavior : behavior that lowers the fitness of the recipient, but raises the fitness of the actor Give two reasons why anthropologists study non-human primates. Anthropologists study primates because of reasoning by analogy and reasoning by homology. Reasoning by analogy can shed light on our morphological features through evolution. Reasoning by homology can explain the origins of our complex nature because of the many similarities between primates and humans. The Arboreal, Visual-Predation and Angiosperm Co-evolution hypotheses have been proposed to explain the adaptive radiation of the Order Primates. What are arguments for each? Arboreal evolution hypothesis: the environment influenced evolution. Primates adapted binocular vision, which gave them depth perception. Also, they developed grasping hands, and nails instead of claws. Some even developed prehensile tails. A varied diet led to more general dentition. Also, because they were up in the trees, they were safer from predators and thus developed longer life spans.
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Exam 2 Review - ANTH 200Lg: The Origins of Humanity Dr....

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