Anthro Final Study Guide

Anthro Final Study Guide -...

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FINAL EXAM: Thursday, 11 Dec 2008, 2:00 – 4:00pm Why might geology and climate change have been important factors in relation to primate (and human) evolution? *** -Position of continents plays an important role in the evolution of species -Creates geographic/reproductive barriers that lead to speciation -Continental drift is an engine of climate change -Natural selection will cause evolution in response to climate change -Environmental pressures lead to evolution -Temperature continually fluctuates -Climate change caused human ancestors to leave tress and become terrestrial -If world got warmer instead of colder during last 20 million years, our ancestors would live in trees and not be bipedal What is continental drift / plate tectonics? *** -Continents are not fixed, they are plates of rock which float on denser, molten rock -The plates and continents are always moving -Pangea Laurasia and Gondwonaland Current continents -Leads to reproductive barriers (oceans) , climate change and speciation What are some examples of absolute and relative dating methodologies? What is the general basis for each of these techniques (e.g. radioactive decay, stratigraphy, faunal correlation)? *** -Absolute methods directly measure age of fossils -Radiometric: Based on radioactive decay of unstable isotopes -Certain elements break down into isotopes at a constant rate -Potassium becomes argon (older, >500,000 years) -Used to date volcanic material -Carbon dating, C14 C12 (<40,000 years) -Used to date organic materials, fossils -Measure the ratio -Thermoluminescence: Based on effect of high energy particles traveling through rock (Between 500,000 and 40,000 years) -Heat flints from ancient campfires and measure the light released -More light= more trapped electrons= more time -Electric spin resonance: Determine age of apatite crystals, an inorganic compound in tooth enamel (Between 500,000 and 40,000) -Originally do not contain electrons, but they become trapped over time -Subject teeth to a magnetic field and measure flow or raditation -More electrons=more time -Relative -Stratigraphy: Measure rocks layers -We know different rock types were prevalent in certain time periods -Paleomagnetism: Based on continual reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field -Match patterns of magnetic reversal at particular site with sequence of reversals from the rest of the world -Faunal corellation: Associate fossils with fossils of other organisms at same site -We know certain organisms only existed at a certain period of time, so we can estimate time of fossils found with it What are the epochs, time period and radiation of species? EPOCH TIME PERIOD RADIATION Paleocene 65-54 mya Plesiadipids Eocene 54-34 mya Adapids and Omomyids Oligocene 34-23 mya Anthropoids Miocene 23-5 mya Hominoids Pliocene 5-1.7 mya Hominids Pleistocene 1.7 Hominins What are plesiadipiformes? Describe some of their characteristics, as well as “when” and “where” they
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FINAL EXAM: Thursday, 11 Dec 2008, 2:00 – 4:00pm occur in the fossil record. Are they (or are they not) good candidates for primate ancestors? ***
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Anthro Final Study Guide -...

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