Chapter 14 Homo sapiens and the Evolution of Modern Behavior

Chapter 14 Homo sapiens and the Evolution of Modern...

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Chapter 14: Homo sapiens and the Evolution of Modern Human Behavior - Between 40 and 30 kya, the fossil and archaeological record in Europe underwent a striking change: the Neanderthals disappeared and were replaced by essentially modern people - Modern humans evolved in Africa between 200 and 100 kya and then migrated from Africa and migrated from Africa and spread throughout the world about 50 kya Modern Homo sapiens - Modern humans are characterized by several derived morphological traits, including a small face and teeth, a pointed chin, a high rounded cranium, and a less robust postcranium o Modern humans had a chin, greatly reduced browridges, longer limbs with thinner-walled bones, longer, more lightly built hands, shorter thicker pubic bones, and distinctive shoulder blades They relied less on body strength and more on elaborate tools and other technological innovations Archaeological Evidence for Modern Human Behavior - Archaeological evidence indicates that modern humans in Europe were able to accumulate complex adaptive and symbolic behavior in the same way as people living today o The variety and sophistication of modern human behavior is a product of our ability to acquire information in this way o There are numerous indications that the first Homo sapiens in Europe had achieved this kind of complex and varied behavior Ecological range: they were able to occupy a difficult, cold, dry habitat Technology: they had more sophisticated and more highly standardized tools made from a wider variety of materials Social organization: they carried materials far away from their origins, indicating that they might have traded Symbolic expression: they created art and performed symbolic behavior o The first modern humans in western Eurasia created a number of different toll industries in different parts of their range; these are known collectively as the Upper Paleolithic industries - Modern humans first entered Australia at least 40 kya, bringing technology similar to that of the Upper Paleolithic people in Europe o People occupied the entire continent by 30 kya o The earliest Australians seem to have practiced some of the same kinds of cultural behaviors as the Upper Paleolithic Europeans did Some of the tools found at the early sites were made from bone There are cave paintings There is evidence of ceremonial burials and cremation They used polished stone tools o The people that first settled in Australia must have been able to build seaworthy vessels - More sophisticated stone tools appeared in eastern Asia around the same time o Modern humans must have come to Australia by way of southern Asia, but signs of modern humans in southern Asia are scarce o Upper Paleolithic tools have been found at a number of sites in northern China, Mongolia, and Siberia o Artifacts have been found that are made from ivory, bone, and horn o There are numerous processed bones of horse, musk ox, bison, and mammoth that indicate that big
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2009 for the course ANTH 200Lg taught by Professor Yamashita during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Chapter 14 Homo sapiens and the Evolution of Modern...

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