Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea Outline

Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea Outline - Chapter 14:...

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Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea Overview - During the 1800s, the most popular hypothesis regarding heredity was “blending” (similar to the idea of paint) o This failed to explain why some traits skipped a generation o It also said that over time, a mixed population would eventually be uniform - Later, the “particulate” hypothesis arose (the gene idea) o It said that genes retain separate identities in offspring o It compared the genes to a deck of cards rather than paint 14.1: Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance Mendel’s experimental, quantitative approach - Mendel was born in the Czech Republic and attended the Olmutz Philosophical Institute - Later, after joining the monastery, he left to study at the University of Vienna o Two influential professors: Christian Doppler (physicist) & Franz Unger (botanist) - Character – a heritable feature that varies among individuals - Trait – each variable for a character - Mendel chose to work with peas because of the variety, the many offspring, and the easy control that he had over the reproductive organs - Features of the pea: o Pollen-producing organ: stamen; Egg-bearing organ: carpel o In nature, they self-fertilize - Mendel would cut the stamen off of the plant before they were mature and then put pollen from another plant onto the carpel to cross pollinate - Mendel chose true-breeding plant, which would become the P generation (only brought forth the same variety as the parent plant) - Hybridization: the crossing of two true-breeding varieties - F1 generation: First generation ( F2, F3,…) The Law of Segregation - When Mendel crossed the white flowered plants and the purple flowered plants, all of the F1 generation had purple flowers. Yet when these plants were allowed to self-pollinate, the white flowers reappeared in the following generation. - The white gene had not been diluted or destroyed in the breeding process. Instead, it was simply masked - The colors were in an approximately 3:1 ratio; other properties: flower position, seed color, seed shape, pod shape, pod color, stem length Mendel’s Model
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Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea Outline - Chapter 14:...

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