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Arab LiteratureArab literature pioneers (1890-1920)Al-Rabita al-Andaloussiya in Latin America (Andalusian Pen Association in Latin America)Al-Rabita al-Qalamiya in New York (Arab Pen Association in USA)Post-War Arab LiteratureGenres of the Arab novel as in Halim Barakat’s typology – meaning of ‘literature engagée’ or ‘committed literature’ (adab multazim) – free verse movement – women literature1.Arab Literary Pioneers (1820-1920)They are not the greatest, piece of ignorance and no Arabic behind them. Hundreds of works appeared at the turn of the century in the late 19thand early 20thcenturies. In Aleppo, Abdel Rahman el-Kawakibi (1900, in political philosophy), Shibil Shumayyil, Farah Antun (in scientifictopics and social science), Georgie Zeidan (Lebanon) wrote 25 romanticized biographies of Arab historical figures, Mustafa Lutfi al-Manfalouti, (he had good French knowledge) translated a large number of European plays, Ahmad Shawki wrote poetry and introduced lyrical and poetic plays, such as Cleopatra and Majnoun Leila, Hafiz Ibrahim (Egypt) wrote modern poet, Mohammad Husayn Haykal (novel : Zaynab), Abu al-Qasim al-Shabbi (patriotic poetry for Tunisia), Ma’ruf al-Russafi (Bahrein), Maroun Abboud (Lebanon, wrote 60 poets, the principal shouldn’t ask the student his religion in his school that he created, so no discrimination, we will find treasure of ancient and modern literature in his 60 books, one of his books became a TV series Barbar Agha is a deudal lord in the discritcs of Koura, didn’t go to school, he worked on his own, his Arabic was fluent,), Bayram al-Tunisi (pop poetry in Egypt), Mahmud Taymur (Egypt), May Ziadeh (Palestine) the most intelligent woman of her time, ended up in a psychiatriccenter in Lebanon (May’s Salon in Cairo), Taha Hussein (Egypt), he’s blind, he wrote wonderful