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ARB 2102Arabic Culture IIFinal ExamMohamad FakhouriExam Date: April 20, 2015Professor name: Dr Kamal Dib1-The Arab woman struggled for her freedom in the 20thcentury. Do you think that today, in 2015 the Arab woman is liberated?
Introduction Woman in the Arab world have suffered throughout the years from discrimination and genderinequality. The route to freedom and independence has been a rocky one filled with obstaclesalong the way. Much of these restraints are the result of many years of cultural embeddednessas well as the manipulation of religious beliefs. The population of the Arab world today is over 360 million people, 50% of which are female. According to a report by UNESCO the Arab world is among the most unequal regions in the world when it comes to gender equalityand education.The constraints that create an obstacle towards women's rights and liberties are reflected in laws dealing with criminal justice, economy, education and healthcare. Although, the status of the liberation of woman has improved significantly from the pre Islamic period until today, Arab women are still suffering from a lack of respect, freedom andrights. Education Education is free for boys as well as girls in all the Arab countries. Although the availability of free education there are over 65 million people illiterate in the Arab world of which two third are women. Mauritania has the largest “adult” woman illiterate rate in the Arab World, which is 68.5%. While Jordan has the least illiterate rate which is 16.9%. Lebanon has 20.2%, Egypt has 57.7% 1. These statistics are for adult women. I believe that poorer families, provided their circumstances, do not send their girls to school. They send them to work at an early age in order to support the family or marry them off young, most times in return for a dowry that the families get to keep. Gender inequality varies from a country to another in higher educational enrollment. “In Bhandari and El-Amine’s study of seven Arab countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, UAE), the researchers found that men and women each comprise about 50 percent of higher education enrollment”2.However, in the Arabian Gulf Countries there are significant differences between universities. In other words the female enrollment rate could range from 0, in a male only institution, to 100, in a female only institution. I believe even though women are enrolling into higher education and the ratio is 50% we are not improving a lot the gender gap. To havean all-girls school or all female higher educational institution is a form of gender discrimination which will prove itself problematic after they graduate and enter a gender mixed workforce. Also, In Egypt for example, women represent about 72 percent of the total