0618370630_ch04 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution...

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133 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry M uch of the chemistry that affects each of us occurs among substances dissolved in water. For example, virtually all the chemistry that makes life possible occurs in an aqueous environment. Also, various medical tests in- volve aqueous reactions, depending heavily on analyses of blood and other body fluids. In addition to the common tests for sugar, cholesterol, and iron, analyses for specific chemical markers allow detection of many diseases before obvious symptoms occur. Aqueous chemistry is also important in our environment. In recent years, contamination of the groundwater by substances such as chloroform and ni- trates has been widely publicized. Water is essential for life, and the main- tenance of an ample supply of clean water is crucial to all civilization. To understand the chemistry that occurs in such diverse places as the human body, the atmosphere, the groundwater, the oceans, the local water treatment plant, your hair as you shampoo it, and so on, we must understand how substances dissolved in water react with each other. However, before we can understand solution reactions, we need to dis- cuss the nature of solutions in which water is the dissolving medium, or sol- vent. These solutions are called aqueous solutions. In this chapter we will study the nature of materials after they are dissolved in water and various types of reactions that occur among these substances. You will see that the procedures developed in Chapter 3 to deal with chemical reactions work very well for reactions that take place in aqueous solutions. To understand the types of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions, we must first explore the types of species present. This requires an understanding of the nature of water. CONTENTS 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes •Strong Electrolytes •Weak Electrolytes •Nonelectrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions •Dilution 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.8 Acid–Base Reactions •Acid–Base Titrations 4.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions •Oxidation States •The Characteristics of Oxidation– Reduction Reactions 4.10 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations •The Half-Reaction Method for Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Yellow lead iodide is produced when lead nitrate is mixed with potassium iodide.
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4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 134 Chapter Four Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is one of the most important substances on earth. It is essential for sustaining the reactions that keep us alive, but it also affects our lives in many indirect ways.
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0618370630_ch04 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution...

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