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key terms for midterm

key terms for midterm - The Chemical Basis of Life Kingdom...

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The Chemical Basis of Life Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species . Kingdoms – Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals Scientific Method – Observation, Questions, Hypothesis, Prediction, Experiment, Hypothesis /Prediction, Experiment theory – widely accepted idea that is broad in scope and supported by body evidence control group - A group in a scientific experiment where the factor being tested is not applied so that it may serve as a standard for comparison against another group where the factor is applied. experimental group - The experimental group is the group that recieves a treatment or a test and the control group doesn't. Emergent Properties - When individual components in an environment come together to create distinct, collective and interactive properties and functions, Atom – Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element Atomic Number – Total mass of an atom Isotopes – The variant form of an atom Proton – subatomic particle with a positive charge electron - subatomic particle with a negative charge neutron - subatomic particle with a neutral charge atomic weight – approx total weight of atom close to atomic mass ion – atom or molecule that has gained or lost an electron thus gaining an electrical charge Mass number – Sum of the number of protons and neutrons electron shell – an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of atom covalent bond – sharing electrons polar covalent bond – sharing electrons unequally because the atoms differ in electronegativity nonpolar – Ionic bond – attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges hydrogen bond – weak bond positive from one and negative from anothe Electro Negativity - the tendency of an atom to attract more than its own Polar Molecule – a molecutle contaning polar covalent bonds Surface Tension – a measure of how hard it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid Solute – a substance that is dissolved in a solution Buffer – chemical subst that resists changes in pH by accepting H ions from or donating H ions to solutions pH scale – measure of acidity in a solution chemical element - Any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter . solution – homogeneus liquid mixture of two or more substances chemical reaction – process leading to chemical changes in matter – making or breaking chem. bonds hypothesis – tentative explanation compound – substance containing two or more elements double bond – type of covalent bond which two atoms share tow pairs of electrons cohesion - The binding together of alike molecules , often in hydrogen bonds (such as water ).
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