Untitled document - Mughal and Ottoman I have chosen the Mughal and Ottoman empires to compare for my essay The Mughal empire was a self-designated

Untitled document - Mughal and Ottoman I have chosen...

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Unformatted text preview: Mughal​ ​and​ ​Ottoman I​ ​have​ ​chosen​ ​the​ ​Mughal​ ​and​ ​Ottoman​ ​empires​ ​to​ ​compare​ ​for​ ​my​ ​essay.​ ​The​ ​Mughal​ ​empire was​ ​a​ ​self-designated​ ​Indian​ ​empire.​ ​The​ ​Ottoman​ ​empire​ ​was​ ​a​ ​Turkish​ ​empire.​ ​I​ ​plan​ ​on focusing​ ​on​ ​the​ ​comparison​ ​of​ ​these​ ​two​ ​empires​ ​economy,​ ​military,​ ​religions,​ ​and​ ​their​ ​rulers similarities​ ​and​ ​differences.​ ​Also​ ​the​ ​relationship​ ​the​ ​two​ ​empires​ ​have​ ​with​ ​one​ ​another​ ​and​ ​the connections​ ​I​ ​made​ ​between​ ​the​ ​empires​ ​while​ ​researching​ ​them​ ​further. The​ ​economy​ ​policies​ ​among​ ​the​ ​two​ ​empires​ ​were​ ​different​ ​and​ ​the​ ​same​ ​in​ ​multiple​ ​ways. Most​ ​of​ ​Mughal​ ​Empire’s​ ​economy​ ​came​ ​from​ ​agriculture,​ ​trade​ ​and​ ​other​ ​industries​ ​in​ ​their region.​ ​Out​ ​of​ ​those​ ​agriculture​ ​had​ ​the​ ​biggest​ ​play​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Mughal​ ​economy.​ ​The​ ​main​ ​sources of​ ​agricultural​ ​during​ ​the​ ​Mughal’s​ ​time​ ​included​ ​millets,​ ​oilseeds,​ ​cereals,​ ​hemp,​ ​chilli, sugarcane,​ ​cotton,​ ​indigo,​ ​betel​ ​and​ ​other​ ​cash​ ​crops.​ ​Urbanisation​ ​and​ ​fixed​ ​markets​ ​also helped​ ​expand​ ​the​ ​economy​ ​in​ ​Mughal​ ​Empire.​ ​At​ ​first​ ​just​ ​the​ ​weekly​ ​market​ ​was​ ​popular. Eventually​ ​several​ ​trade​ ​centers​ ​were​ ​created​ ​in​ ​prospering​ ​cities​ ​with​ ​the​ ​growth​ ​of​ ​the economy.​ ​The​ ​Ottoman​ ​Empire’s​ ​economy​ ​was​ ​similar​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Mughal’s​ ​economy​ ​because​ ​of​ ​the great​ ​need​ ​for​ ​agriculture.Although​ ​the​ ​Ottoman’s​ ​focused​ ​mainly​ ​on​ ​trade​ ​as​ ​their​ ​economic support.​ ​The​ ​city​ ​of​ ​Istanbul​ ​was​ ​the​ ​crossroads​ ​of​ ​trade​ ​between​ ​the​ ​East​ ​and​ ​West.​ ​Some​ ​of the​ ​goods​ ​traded​ ​were;​ ​silk,​ ​tea,​ ​spices​ ​and​ ​porcelain.​ ​The​ ​Black​ ​Sea​ ​and​ ​southern​ ​Russia provided​ ​furs,​ ​grain,​ ​and​ ​amber.​ ​Europe​ ​provided​ ​mirrors​ ​and​ ​drugs.​ ​The​ ​Ottomans​ ​used​ ​the Seljuk​ ​caravan​ ​stops​ ​which​ ​were​ ​about​ ​25​ ​miles​ ​apart​ ​on​ ​the​ ​main​ ​trade​ ​routes.​ ​The​ ​two empires​ ​used​ ​agriculture​ ​and​ ​trade​ ​just​ ​one​ ​more​ ​than​ ​the​ ​other.​ ​Both​ ​empires​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​trade networks​ ​in​ ​Middle​ ​Asia,​ ​East​ ​Asia,​ ​and​ ​China. The​ ​military​ ​structures​ ​between​ ​the​ ​two​ ​also​ ​have​ ​differences​ ​and​ ​similarities.​ ​The​ ​Mughal military​ ​was​ ​controlled​ ​by​ ​the​ ​emperor​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Mughal​ ​Empire.​ ​There​ ​were​ ​five​ ​branches​ ​of military;​ ​infantry,​ ​cavalry,​ ​fire-arms,​ ​elephants,​ ​and​ ​war​ ​boats.​ ​The​ ​infantry​ ​was​ ​considered​ ​the largest​ ​of​ ​the​ ​five​ ​branches.​ ​The​ ​fire-arms​ ​consisted​ ​of​ ​gunners,​ ​musketeers,​ ​and​ ​cannon shooters.​ ​The​ ​cannons​ ​was​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​important​ ​weapons.​ ​Sadly​ ​their​ ​navy​ ​was​ ​quite weak,​ ​but​ ​they​ ​had​ ​the​ ​cavalry​ ​which​ ​gave​ ​the​ ​the​ ​speed​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​receive​ ​victory.​ ​The Ottoman​ ​Empire’s​ ​military​ ​was​ ​ran​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Turkish​ ​soldiers,​ ​this​ ​was​ ​because​ ​post​ ​of​ ​the Ottoman​ ​Empire​ ​was​ ​Turkish.​ ​The​ ​Ottoman’s​ ​had​ ​influence​ ​from​ ​many​ ​other​ ​countries​ ​that surrounded​ ​them.​ ​The​ ​difference​ ​between​ ​the​ ​two​ ​empires​ ​military​ ​was​ ​mostly​ ​their​ ​choice​ ​of weapons.​ ​The​ ​Ottoman’s​ ​had​ ​access​ ​to​ ​German​ ​small​ ​arms​ ​such​ ​as​ ​rifles,​ ​carbines​ ​and handguns. The​ ​two​ ​empires​ ​were​ ​found​ ​in​ ​different​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​causing​ ​them​ ​to​ ​have​ ​many​ ​religious differences​ ​but​ ​also​ ​some​ ​similarities.​ ​The​ ​Mughal​ ​empire​ ​started​ ​off​ ​as​ ​a​ ​mostly​ ​Islam​ ​group but​ ​branched​ ​into​ ​Muslim​ ​as​ ​well.​ ​The​ ​Mughal​ ​emperors​ ​were​ ​Muslims,​ ​they​ ​conquered northern​ ​India​ ​and​ ​began​ ​proclaiming​ ​freedom​ ​of​ ​religion,​ ​and​ ​for​ ​the​ ​most​ ​part​ ​they​ ​let​ ​Hindus, Parsees,​ ​and​ ​Buddhists​ ​worship​ ​whatever​ ​gods​ ​they​ ​wanted.​ ​About​ ​this​ ​time​ ​there​ ​were​ ​not many​ ​Buddhists​ ​in​ ​India​ ​just​ ​a​ ​few​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Himalaya​ ​Mountains​ ​in​ ​the​ ​north.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​south​ ​the Deccan​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Chola​ ​kingdoms​ ​their​ ​people​ ​continued​ ​to​ ​practise​ ​Hinduism.​ ​The​ ​Ottoman Empire​ ​were​ ​Sunni​ ​Islam.​ ​The​ ​Christian​ ​and​ ​Jewish​ ​communities​ ​in​ ​the​ ​empire​ ​maintained​ ​their own​ ​courts​ ​for​ ​handling​ ​affairs,​ ​but​ ​only​ ​the​ ​Muslims​ ​would​ ​judge​ ​the​ ​Muslim​ ​affairs.​ ​The​ ​Mughal leader​ ​Akbar​ ​accepted​ ​Muslims,​ ​Hindus,​ ​Christians,​ ​and​ ​Buddhist.​ ​The​ ​Ottomans​ ​were​ ​mainly Muslims,​ ​Greek​ ​Christians,​ ​and​ ​Jews. Both​ ​empires​ ​had​ ​their​ ​infamous​ ​rulers​ ​and​ ​leader​ ​groups​ ​who​ ​set​ ​the​ ​empires​ ​apart​ ​in​ ​different ways.​ ​The​ ​Mughal​ ​empire​ ​was​ ​ruled​ ​by​ ​Babur​ ​a​ ​central​ ​Asian​ ​ruler.​ ​Although​ ​his​ ​grandson​ ​was a​ ​main​ ​reason​ ​of​ ​his​ ​empire​ ​succeeding​ ​he​ ​was​ ​the​ ​face​ ​of​ ​the​ ​empire.​ ​Bābur​ ​was​ ​a​ ​military adventurer​ ​and​ ​an​ ​gave​ ​the​ ​empire​ ​good​ ​fortune,​ ​with​ ​a​ ​great​ ​personality.​ ​He​ ​was​ ​also​ ​a​ ​Turki poet,​ ​he​ ​also​ ​enjoyed​ ​constructing​ ​gardens​ ​wherever​ ​he​ ​went.​ ​Osman​ ​I​ ​Khan​ ​was​ ​the​ ​well known​ ​ruler​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Ottoman​ ​empire​ ​for​ ​many​ ​years.​ ​Osman​ ​began​ ​a​ ​campaign​ ​of​ ​conquering the​ ​neighboring​ ​towns.​ ​He​ ​created​ ​an​ ​independent​ ​state​ ​when​ ​he​ ​stopped​ ​the​ ​payment​ ​of tribute​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Mongol​ ​emperor.​ The​ ​leaders​ ​of​ ​the​ ​two​ ​empires​ ​both​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​pleasing​ ​their empire​ ​but​ ​made​ ​sure​ ​their​ ​militaries​ ​were​ ​in​ ​good​ ​shape​ ​and​ ​always​ ​getting​ ​better.​ ​Also​ ​both the​ ​leaders​ ​worked​ ​to​ ​strengthen​ ​their​ ​empires​ ​religious​ ​ties. The​ ​two​ ​empires​ ​had​ ​very​ ​few​ ​connections​ ​but​ ​not​ ​much​ ​of​ ​a​ ​relationship​ ​with​ ​each​ ​other,​ ​their distance​ ​did​ ​not​ ​allow​ ​much​ ​interaction.​ ​One​ ​connection​ ​was,​ ​The​ ​Timurid​ ​Empire,​ ​the​ ​Mughal Empire​ ​origin,​ ​had​ ​conflict​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Ottomans.​ ​Timur​ ​captured​ ​the​ ​Ottoman​ ​Sultan​ ​Bayezid​ ​I which​ ​caused​ ​civil​ ​war​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Empire.​ ​Another​ ​connection​ ​was​ ​the​ ​Ottoman’s​ ​trade​ ​was prominent​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Indian​ ​Ocean,​ ​although​ ​they​ ​constantly​ ​clashed​ ​with​ ​European​ ​trade,​ ​but​ ​the Mughals​ ​had​ ​little​ ​to​ ​do​ ​with​ ​that​ ​other​ ​than​ ​possible​ ​trade​ ​malfunctions.​ ​Although​ ​those​ ​aren’t great​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​a​ ​relationship​ ​they​ ​do​ ​share​ ​many​ ​concepts.​ ​One​ ​is​ ​the​ ​Turkic​ ​origin,​ ​Osman I,​ ​the​ ​founder​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Ottoman​ ​dynasty,​ ​is​ ​believed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​the​ ​son​ ​of​ ​a​ ​Turkic​ ​chief​ ​who​ ​fled​ ​the Mongol.​ ​Babur,​ ​the​ ​founder​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Mughal​ ​Empire​ ​was​ ​a​ ​descendant​ ​of​ ​Timur,​ ​a​ ​Turco-Mongol conqueror​ ​and​ ​founder​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Timurid​ ​Empire.​ ​The​ ​use​ ​of​ ​gunpowder​ ​is​ ​another​ ​example,​ ​The Ottoman​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Mughal​ ​Empires​ ​are​ ​among​ ​the​ ​three​ ​“Gunpowder​ ​Empires.”​ ​Most​ ​of​ ​the military​ ​successes​ ​of​ ​these​ ​empires​ ​is​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​investment​ ​of​ ​small​ ​firearms.​ ​Both​ ​empires share​ ​the​ ​Islamic​ ​religion​ ​as​ ​well,​ ​both​ ​the​ ​Ottomans​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Mughals​ ​were​ ​Muslims.​ ​Science and​ ​Technology​ ​was​ ​also​ ​important​ ​between​ ​the​ ​two,​ ​advances​ ​in​ ​science​ ​and​ ​technology​ ​were made​ ​in​ ​Ottoman​ ​and​ ​Mughal​ ​societies,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​Ottomans​ ​seemed​ ​to​ ​have​ ​better​ ​luck​ ​with​ ​their findings​ ​in;​ ​astronomy,​ ​alchemy,​ ​medicine​ ​and​ ​military​ ​technology.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​end​ ​both​ ​empires​ ​had impact​ ​on​ ​culture.​ ​The​ ​effect​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Ottomans​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Mughals​ ​have​ ​on​ ​world​ ​culture​ ​is undeniable​ ​such​ ​as​ ​art,​ ​architecture​ ​or​ ​food,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​still​ ​prominent​ ​in​ ​many​ ​cultures​ ​around​ ​the world. “Economy​ ​of​ ​Mughal​ ​Empire.”​ ​IndiaNetzone.com​, ​. “Ottoman​ ​Empire.”​ ​OttomanEmpire.info​,​ ​ottomanempire.info/economy.htm. “The​ ​Military​ ​.”​ ​Mughal​ ​Empire,​ ​mughalempiregroup4.weebly.com/military.html. 'The​ ​Ottoman​ ​Army',​ ​URL:​ ​ ,​ ​(Ministry for​ ​Culture​ ​and​ ​Heritage),​ ​updated​ ​13-Jan-2016 “The​ ​Ottoman​ ​Empire.”​ ​Weapons​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Ottoman​ ​Army​ ​-​ ​The​ ​Ottoman​ ​Empire​ ​|​ ​NZHistory,​ ​New Zealand​ ​History​ ​Online,​ ​nzhistory.govt.nz/war/ottoman-empire/weapons-of-the-ottoman-empire, (Ministry​ ​for​ ​Culture​ ​and​ ​Heritage),​ ​updated​ ​30-Jul-2014 “Mughal​ ​Religion.”​ ​Religion​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Mughal​ ​Empire​ ​-​ ​India​ ​-​ ​Quatr.us​, quatr.us/india/after1500/religion/. “Islam​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Ottoman​ ​Empire.”​ ​Europe,​ ​1450​ ​to​ ​1789:​ ​Encyclopedia​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Early​ ​Modern​ ​World, Encyclopedia.com, e​. Spear,​ ​T.G.​ ​Percival.​ ​“Bābur.”​ ​Encyclopædia​ ​Britannica,​ ​Encyclopædia​ ​Britannica,​ ​Inc.,​ ​10​ ​Dec. 2015,​ ​ ​. “Osman​ ​I.”​ ​Encyclopedia​ ​of​ ​World​ ​Biography​,​ ​Encyclopedia.com, ​. “Ottoman​ ​And​ ​Mughal​ ​.”​ ​Quora​ ​Questions​, ​. ...
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