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Unformatted text preview: Isolation of Limonene from Citrus Fruits Introduction In this experiment, limonene will be isolated from the peel of oranges. The limonene extracted will then be analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC), InfraRed Spectrometry (IR), and by measuring it Refractive Index (IR). The optical rotation of both enantiomers of limonene will also be measured. To extract purer limonene, steam distillation will be applied. Steam distillation is a form of extracting pure products by co-distilling these pure samples with water. Usually, this form of distillation is applied to immiscible liquids which in this experiment will be water and limonene. This method is used because on their own, natural organic compounds like limonene cannot be distilled faster or efficiently because they have very high boiling points and so their individual vapor pressure exerted in the liquid cannot reach the boiling point fast enough. So when limonene is mixed with water the combined vapor pressure of both the water and the limonene exert enough pressure to reach...
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