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Unformatted text preview: Anthropology Terms to Know Stonehenge • Beaker Culture- 2800 – 1900 BC, is the term for a widely but spottily scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western Europe • Declination- one of the two coordinates of the equatorial coordinate system; comparable to latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, and is measured in degrees north and south of the celestial equator. • Degrees of right ascension- celestial equivalent of terrestrial longitude; measure an east- west angle along the equator from a zero point; used to determine a star's location and to determine how long it will take for a star to reach a certain point in the sky. • Wessex Culture- predominant prehistoric culture of southern Britain during the early Bronze Age; immigrant race, replacing and wiping out the Beaker people; constructed the second and third ( megalithic ) phases of Stonehenge • Windmill Hill Culture people inhabiting southern Britain in the area close to Stonehenge around 3000BC; agrarian Neolithic people; responsible for the earliest work on Stonehenge • Mortise and tenon joinery- used by woodworkers to join two pieces of wood, most often at an angle close to 90°; basic idea is that the end of one of the members is inserted into a hole cut in the other member. The end of the first member is called the tenon, and it is usually narrowed with respect to the rest of the piece. The hole in the second member is called the mortise • Tongue and groove joinery- method of fitting similar objects together; allow two flat pieces to be joined strongly together to make a single flat surface; each piece has a slot (the groove ) cut all along one edge, and a thin, deep ridge (the tongue ) on the opposite edge. • Menhir- Stone Age monolith, roughly cut, standing singly or w/others in rows/circles Sanchi • Animatism- belief of certain cultures in supernatural forces and powers that are inanimate and impersonal (example: the ashes of Buddha and his disciples brought the stupa to life) • Animism- belief that souls inhabit all or most objects • Axis mundi (world pole)- vertical division line between the realm of Buddha and the realm of humans, which come to meet in architecture; point where physical and spiritual reality meet (Heaven and Earth) • Bodhigaya: the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment, also known as the Mahabodhi Temple (Literally: "Great Awakening Temple") • Circumambulation-the act of moving around a sacred object • Contagion- belief that spiritual properties within an object, place, or person may be passed to another object, place, or person, usually by direct contact or physical proximity • Cosmonogy- study of the cosmos • Emperor Asoka-established thousands of monuments (stupas) marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha, i.e. Sanchi • Harmika-a square fence-like enclosure symbolizing heaven on top of the dome of a stupa; in the center of the harmika the yasti arises • Macrocosm...
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