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midterm2 - October1 ChimpanzeeDistribution Fewknownareas...

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October 1 Chimpanzee Distribution Few known areas East to West Africa Mostly Central Africa Senegal o Dry and grassy Chimpanzee Studies Gombe (Tanzania, East Africa). Jane Goodall, 1960. Tool use, hunting, kinship bonds, “warfare”. Many other studies by her students o Hired by Leakey who thought Chimps must resemble early humans Mahale Mtns. (Tanzania, East Africa). Toshisada Nishida, 1965. Confirmed Gombe data. Tai (Ivory Coast, West Africa). Christophe Boesch, 1979. Stone tool use, behavior of chimps in lowland rain forest. Kibale (Uganda, East Africa). Richard Wrangham and others, 1987. Detailed diet studies, patrolling behavior, hormones, and social behavior Gombe Lake the size of lake Michigan Hills elevation of Santa Monica mountains Tanzania Monsoon rains in late October, until early January Dry season lacks vegetation Stanford was there off and on for 6 years studying predator-prey relationships Chimps live mostly on plant foods but eat carcasses Why is meat-eating important? Meat became an unquestionably important part of the early human diet by 2.5 million years ago o Fossils with scratch marks made by humans Animal protein and fats were likely in short supply and of great nutritional value As a limited commodity, meat offers opportunities and necessity for barter systems o Economics of limited resources Females become highly social at one time in their life Estrus for 10 days Parties of male chimps hang out and do warfare Lethal territoriality
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Lots of meat eating during hottest months of the year Pigs Antelope fawns Chimp meat eating is on the bottom of the meat-eating spectrum Gombe Chimpanzee Hunting Behavior 90% kills made by males About 2/3 of encounters result in hunts Half of hunts are successful Multiple kills are common: 2-7 colobus killed Hunting binges o During times when many women were in estrus Eat the brain and bone marrow o Lots of fat The Fate of the Apes: conservation priorities and prospects in the 21 st century Less than 1/4 million Ape Conservation: Problems Habitat Loss (deforestation) Bushmeat o Reproduce so slowly that they cannot withstand hunting pressure Disease transmission Snares Poaching for labs, zoos Ape Conservation: Solutions Better Information on remaining populations Detailed field studies that train local people and scientists Bwindi Impenetrable Great Ape Project (BIGAPE) **Stanford (‘96-‘05) Impenetrable forest is the only place where chimps and gorillas live together Commonly cited chimpanzee-gorilla differences (conventional wisdom, thoughts before study) Chimpanzee diet mainly fruit; gorilla diet mainly leaves Chimps highly arboreal; gorillas terrestrial Chimps highly mobile; gorillas sedentary Chimps live in multi-male communities; gorillas in one-male harems Why Study Sympatric Apes? The presence of ecological competitors is a key aspect of natural selection that
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midterm2 - October1 ChimpanzeeDistribution Fewknownareas...

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