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The Early Middle Ages- Instability In Europe

The Early Middle Ages- Instability In Europe - Roman state...

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HUM 111 THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES: INSTABILITY IN EUROPE Professor Sonia Sorrell Chronology : Diocletian: 284-305 Great Persecution: 303-313 Constantine: 306-337 Edict of Milan: 313 Council of Nicea: 325 Christianity state religion: 392 Sack of Rome: 410 Odoacer Emperor: 476 (traditional “end” of Rome) Late Roman Empire Problems: overexpansion, disunity, migrations/invasions, loss of tax base Diocletian: divided Empire (West [Rome]; East [Byzantium]) dioceses: later adopted by church, syncretism eliminated opponents (Great Persecution) Decline of Rome and the Rise of Christianity (“fall” or “transmutation”?) Constantine: Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312) Edict of Milan (313) Council of Nicea (325): Arius or Athanasius? Church “versus” State issue Roman Emperor = Pontifex Maximus; history of Roman “state” religion Theodosius: Christianity state religion of Rome, forbids paganism (392) Early Middle Ages “Dark Ages” versus “Middle Ages” (or Medieval Era) Weakening of Roman bureaucracy:
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Unformatted text preview: Roman state unable to protect vast borders Changes in climate: northern tribes moved south Invasions or Migrations? Huns, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Vikings Fall of strong central government: decline in standards of living decline of minted coins, trade, communication, roads, cities, housing, etc. little monumental art or architecture small, portable, intrinsically valuable arts (interlace, cloisonné) migration period architecture insecurity and uncertainty Monasticism: Benedictine Rule: asceticism, vows of poverty, chastity, & obedience St. Gall: plan for an ideal monastery, self-contained “world” depositories of learning, maintained classical texts and education illuminated manuscripts developments in writing: minuscules, spaces, left to right codices replace scrolls classical writings also preserved in Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, especially by Arab and Islamic scholars...
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