Student_Outline_Unit_4

Student_Outline_Unit_4 - Unit IV: Animal Structure and...

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Unit IV: Animal Structure and Function Animal Tissues and Organ Systems ***STRUCTURE FITS FUNCTION!! Tissues- community of cells and intercellular substances that are interacting in one or more tasks. (Four types) I. Epithelial (epithelium) Tissue A. Description – sheets that COVER __external surfaces or LINE the inside of organs/cavities B. Two sides to this tissue 1. Inside cavity or outside surface of skin = free surface 2. Side attached to a dense mat of extracellular matrix consisting of fibrous proteins and polysaccharides= basement membrane surface C. Secretory epithelium= glandular __ epithelium 1. exocrine = secretions released onto free surface and carried through ducts/tubes (ex: 2. endocrine = no ducts, secrete from free surface directly into body fluid/blood (ex: D. Various structures of epithelium 1. Simple squamous a. Structure – one cell layer flattened b. Function – diffusion and filtration c. Where? air sacs of lungs, blood vessels. leaky 1
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2. Simple cuboidal a. Structure – one layer; square like cells with a lot of cytoplasm, RER, and golgi b. Function – secretion (glandular) and absorption c. Where? living ducts, ovaries, testes, kidney tubules 3. Simple columnar a. Structure – single layer of tall , may be ciliated on free side or have numerous small folds (microvilli) b. Function – secretion (often of mucus) and movement of materials (with cilia) and absorption (with microvilli in intestine) c. Where? digestive tract, airways 4. Stratified squamous a. Structure – layers of flattened cells b. Function – protection; covers areas of high abrasion c. Where? skin, digestive tract (esophagous) II. Connective Tissue A. Description – cells that secrete specific protein fibers (ex: collagen and elastin) and Ground substances (extracellular matrix composed of modified polysaccharides) B. Six types of Connective tissue 1. loose a. Structure – loose fibers and cells in extensive ground substance b. Function- elastic binding and packaging c. Where? wrapped around most organs beneath skin and beneath most epithelial tissue 2. fibrous irregular or regular a. Structure – few cells in dense fibers and little ground substance b. Function – support, strength, elasticity 2
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c. Where? in skin, ligaments, tendons, and around some organs 3. Atipose a. Structure – fat containing cells in sparse ground substance but surrounded by a lot of blood vessels b. Function – padding, insulation, energy storage c. Where? around most organs, under skin 4. cartilage a. Structure – cells imprisoned in a rubbery ground substance, no blood vessel supply b. Function – flexible support, resists compression, low friction movement in joints c. Where? end of long bones, joints, ears, nose 5. bone a. Structure- cells imprisoned in a mineralized ground substance with a blood vessel supply b. Function – sturdy support, movement, protection of organs and brain 6. blood (considered a connective tissue because its cellular components form within bone, which is a connective tissue). More about blood another day!
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2008 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Hogan during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Student_Outline_Unit_4 - Unit IV: Animal Structure and...

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