Final Readings - Sociology 300 Final Readings I The...

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Sociology 300- Final Readings I.) The Founders of Sociology 1. “From the Enlightenment and the Birth of Social Science”- Hamilton, Peter a. Summary: b. Key Points: 2. “Auguste Comte and Positivist Sociology”- Benton Ted a. Summary: (432) Ted Benton gives the history of positivist sociology and empiricism in the 18 th century. He talks about empiricism and its relation to enlightenment in France, and the contributors to this way of thought. b. Key Points: Positivism- the philosophy that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is a based on tangible sense experience. Such knowledge can only come from affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. Empiricism- the philosophical theory that knowledge only arises from experience. Positivism was started by Comte The major philosophical tendency to which positivism belongs is empiricism 3. “Sociology and the Growth of Industrial Society”- a. Summary: David Lee and Howard Newby delve into sociologies perception of the industrial revolution of England and the Democratic Revolutions in the US and France. This time period, the mid to late 18 th century, is referred to as the ‘great transformation.’ This time period was interpreted in the article in four separate ways: industrialism, capitalism, urbanism, liberal democracy. Industrialism- converted family based production and farming to the factory unit as a means of production. Time is now currency, it is not passed but spent. Capitalism- did not arrive with the industrial revolution. Allowed people to obtain goods or services that they did not have a hand in making. A new breed of industrial workers were allowed to subsist because of capitalism b. Key Points: Stressed the intimate connection between the ways in which individuals make choices and the nature of society. Choice depends upon the social conditions Society changed greatly during this time, more than any other Society, rather than the individual became the focus of attention
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II.) Society’s Behavior is Driven y Economic Conflict (Marx) 1. “Manifesto of the Communist Party”- a. Summary: Europe in 18 th th century changed with industrialization but for many brought increased labor and poverty. Marx and Engels explain reasons for this in this pamphlet The bourgeoisie (modern capitalists) sprouted from a feudal society. Those who owned means of production (bourgeoisie) dominate the workers (proliteriates). Modern industry grew and established the world-market. Growing capitalism resolved personal worth into exchange value, reduced family relation to money relation, and with each step in development accompanied political advance of the bourgeousie. The middle class begins to diminish as the two sides separate further. The bourgeoisie is unfit torule in society as it cannot assure the existence of its slave within its slavery. Mass production becomes over production and
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This note was uploaded on 12/09/2008 for the course SOC 300 taught by Professor Mcginn during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Final Readings - Sociology 300 Final Readings I The...

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