aud_07_present2

aud_07_present2 - X.C. Sound localization in barn owls...

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X.C. Sound localization in barn owls X.C.1. Cues
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There are several different kinds of information the brain can use to compute a map of auditory space. Two important cues are interaural timing differences and interaural intensity differences. If there is a tiger to the left of us, the sound of the tiger’s roar will reach our left ear _________than it will reach our right ear. This difference in the time at which a sound reaches the two ears is the ___________________ If the tiger is to the left of us, the sound of the tiger’s roar will also be ___________ in our left ear than in our right ear because our head blocks the sound from reaching our right ear. This difference in the loudness of a sound reaching our two ears is called the ___________________________________ sooner Interaural timing diff (ITD) Interaural intensity difference (IID) louder Right ear Left ear Sound has to travel smaller distance to left ear so it arrives sooner. Some sound going to the right ear is blocked by the head. Therefore sound is louder in left ear because it is not blocked by the head. What is the interaural timing difference for a sound directly in front of us? What is the interaural intensity difference for a sound directly in back of us? Zero Zero X.C.1 Cues
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Barn owls, who hunt at night, are particularly good at localizing sounds. Owls have specialized external ears which help them to localize the elevation (vertical location) of a sound using interaural intensity differences. The owl has its right ear higher than its left ear and has a dense growth of feathers above the left ear and below the right ear. This means that for a sound coming from above the owl the sound will be attenuated in the left ear, while for a sound coming from below the owl the sound will be attenuated in the right ear. Right of owl Left of owl eyes ears Dense feathers Sound from above 1) Must go through dense feathers to get to left ear 4) So softer in left ear than right Sound from below 3) Do not go through dense feathers to get to right ear 2) This attenuates sound at left ear Similar logic makes sound louder in left ear 5) Also feathers below right ear reflect sound so it is louder in right ear 6) this adds to the interaural difference making sound louder in right ear X.C.1.b Interaural Intensity Difference (elevation in owls)
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X.C. Sound localization in barn owls X.C.2. Mechanisms
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The cells which provide ________ to the nucleus (whether they come
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aud_07_present2 - X.C. Sound localization in barn owls...

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