Chapter_1_Study_Guide_-_Prehistoric_Past.doc - STUDY TERMS...

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STUDY TERMS – CHAPTER 1 The Prehistoric Past Use your notes from class, information from the textbook, and other instructional materials presented by your instructor to describe the terms on the list. Add as much detail as possible to the description to enhance your performance on the midterm exam. 1. Civilization - * A social, economic, and political entity distinguished by the ability to express itself through images and written language. * Develop when the environment of a region can support a large and productive population. * Requires increased production of food and other goods, to support itself, and also to trade for other commodities due to population. * Requires an administrative elite to form and establish priorities. * Major way societies acquired goods they wanted and organized themselves is by war. 2. Culture - * Encompasses the values and behaviors shared by a group of people, developed overtime, and passed down from one generation to the next. * Shown through laws, customs, ritual behavior, and artistic production common to the group. * Created myths and legends that explained their origins and relation to the world. * Center of Culture - a focal point of group living where values of a community find expression. * 3. Perspectival Drawing - * Conveys a sense of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. 4. Naturalism - * Representations that imitate the actual appearance. (Chauvet cave paintings) 5. Paleolithic Culture – * “Old Stone Age” (from Greek palaios, “old,” and lithos, “stone"); * Homo sapiens ascendency (evolved about 100,000 – 120,000 years ago) * Hunter-gatherers, had lighter builds and larger brains than earlier hominid * Sustained themselves on game and wild plants. * Cooked with fire, wore animal skin clothing. * Developed more sophisticated tools than their ancestors (cleavers, chisels, grinders, hand axes, arrow/spearheads made of flint.) * Buried dead with stone tools and weapons in ritual ceremonies. * Small, scattered, and nomadic cultures with some interaction among group * Produced paintings in caves such as Altamira in Spain, Chauvet, and Lasca in France. Carved small sculptural objects, most known – female figures (Venuses) * Women played central role. More female figurines than male. Matrilineal – descent is determined through the female line. Matrilocal – residence is in the female’s tribe or household. * Major Paleolithic caves in France and Spain (Ardeche Region/gorge).
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* Ice covering the Northern Hemisphere receded around 10,000 BCE, causing agriculture to begin replacing hunting and gathering, and the nomadic lifestyle gave way to a move sedentary way of which brought on the Neolithic Era, or “New Stone Age.” 6. Megaliths - * “Big Stone” *
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