Chapter_3_Study_Guide_-_Rome_China_India.doc - STUDY TERMS...

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STUDY TERMS – CHAPTER 3 Empire – Rome, China, & India Use your notes from class, information from the textbook, and other instructional materials presented by your instructor to describe the terms on the list. Add as much detail as possible to the description to enhance your performance on the midterm exam. 1. Etruscans - occupied the part of the Italian peninsula that today is known as Tuscany – Etruria: homeland - Scholars continue to debate whether the Etruscans were indigenous to Italy or whether they migrated from the Near East - Most of what we know of the Etruscans comes from their art --no literature survives --Scholars unable to translate their epigrammatic texts - Richly decorated burial tombs (tumulus), bronze work, bucchero pottery, skill as sculptors - Tombs suggest a belief in the afterlife similar to that of the Egyptians - Known for their mineral resources in the 9 th and 8 th century - 6 th and 7 th century they were major exporters of fine painted pottery, bucchero, oil, wine, jewelry - 5 th century known for skill as sculptors in bronze and terra cotta 2. Republican Rome - In 510 BCE the Romans expelled the last of the Etruscan kings and decided to rule themselves without a monarch - patricians and plebeians - every plebeian chose a patrician as his patron, and patricians did so to higher powers - Under Rome’s patrician system, the upper classes owed dutiful respect, or pietas , toward others—the gods, country, and family, in that order - Punic Wars: (exploits) when Rome conquered it established permanent colonies to soldiers 3. Patricians & Plebeians - Unlike Greece, not every free citizen enjoyed equal privileges. In the Etruscan manner, the Roman free males were patricians (land- owning aristocrats) and plebians (the poorer class) - The Senate was exclusively patrician - plebians did form their own Council of Plebians to protect themselves from the Senate , but the patricians were not subject to their laws until much later. - Patronage – the idea that the Pater, the father, protected not only his wife and family, but also his clients. Plebians chose a patrician as a patron to represent them in a court of law. - Emperor – pater patriae
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4. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar 100-44 BCE - “Veni, vidi, vici” -- “I came, I saw, I conquered” - military leader from prestigious patrician family, claimed descent from Aeneas & Venus - one of the three leaders whose union became known as the First Triumvirate - first to build a form of his own in 46 BCE, just to the north of the Forum Romanum - Accepted 5 year term as governor of Gaul, modern day France; Gaul controlled by 49 BC - defeated Pompey in Greece in 50 BC - Assumed dictatorial control over Rome after other 2 members of Triumvirate died - March 14, 44 BCE, the Ides of March, he was stabbed 23 times by a group of 60 senators at the foot of a sculpture honoring Pompey on the floor of the Senate-shakespseare play - Senate believe they freed Rome of a tyrant, but the people were outraged, the Senate disgraced, and Caesar considered a martyr 5.
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