Chapter_2_Study_Guide_-_Greek_World.doc - STUDY TERMS –...

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STUDY TERMS – CHAPTER 2 The Greek World Use your notes from class, information from the textbook, and other instructional materials presented by your instructor to describe the terms on the list. Add as much detail as possible to the description to enhance your performance on the midterm exam. 1. Acropolis - * “Top of the City” * Polis consisting of urban center, small by modern standards, surrounding a natural citadel that could serve as fortification but which usually served as the city-state’s religious center 2. Bronze Age - * Cultures that developed in the Aegean were seafaring cultures: developing in the Cyclades, Crete, and Mycenae islands. * The Greeks claimed these cultures as their ancestors; they even had a word for the way that they knew them – archaiologia (knowing the past) * The Cyclades are a group of more than 100 islands in the Aegean Sea between mainland Greece and the island of Crete * They form a roughly circular shape, giving them their name, from the Greek kyklos, “circle” * No written records of the early Cycladic people remain, although archaeologists have found a good deal of their art in and around hillside burial chambers 3. Minoans - * Flourished on Crete from about 1900 to 1375 BCE * Name comes from the legendary king Minos, who was said to have ruled the islands ancient capital of Knossos. * Knossos housed Toreador Fresco (Bull Leaping) * Culture severely weakened after a volcano eruption on Thera (possible invasion/ revolution) * Produced prized metal works 4. Mycenaeans - * Occupied Crete quickly after the Minoans abandoned the palace at Knossos in 1450 BCE * Lived in communities surrounding fortified hilltops * Battle and hunting scenes dominate their art * Warlike - lived and died by the sword * Forerunner of ancient Greek culture and was essentially feudal in nature * Large bureaucracy of tax collectors, civil servants, & military personal ensured prosperity * Desired to control trade routes throughout the region 5. Homeric Epics - * Iliad: tells of the anger of the Greek hero Achilles and its consequences during a war between Mycenae and Troy, which occurred around 1200 BCE. * Odyssey : follows Greek commander Odysseus on his adventure-laden journey home to his faithful wife, Penelope. (myth of the Minotaur, comprised
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for the Greeks to know their past) 6. Greek Gods & Goddesses - * Zues (Jupiter): king of gods, bearded, eagle and thunderbolt * Hera (Juno): wife and sister of Zues, goddess of marriage and maternity * Athena (Minerva): Goddess of war, and also according to Athens- civilization daughter of Zeus, born from his head helmeted, shield, spear, owl, olive tree * Ares (Mars): God of war, son of Zues and Hera, armored * Aphrodite (Venus): goddess of love and beauty; born with several genitals of Uranus. Eros is her son. * Apollo (Phoebus): God of sun, light, truth, prophecy, music, medicine Carries bow and arrow; lyre; rides chariot across the sky * Artemis (Diana): Goddess of the hunt and moon; Apollo’s sister Carries bow and arrow, accompanied by hunting dogs * Demeter (Ceres): Goddess of agriculture and grain *
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