Study Guide for Exam 2 - Study Guide for Exam 2 Lecture 12...

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Study Guide for Exam 2 Lecture 12: Nutrition Basics Essential Nutrients the body needs: Eating Fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water -Nutrients obtained through digestion - Nutrients must be balanced in order to provide body with energy, maintain body tissues and regulate body functions 3 Most important essential nutrients are: Fats, Proteins and Carbohydrates - Fats=9 Calories per gram -Protein= 4 calories per gram -Carbohydrates=4 calories per gram Kilocalorie- a measure of energy content in food. Calorie- much smaller energy unit -Referred to as a calorie (1 Kilocalorie = 1000 calories) Fats (Lipids) Daily intake from fats 20%-35% Saturated, Monosaturated and Polyunsaturated -Stored in body for energy -Used to insulate organs, support and cushion organs, absorb fat soluble vitamins -Main source of energy for light activity and during rest Saturated fats: Hamburgers, hotdogs, steaks, roasts, whole milk, cheese and lunch meats -Solid at room Temperature Monosaturated: Olive, Canola, Safflower and Peanut oils Polyunsaturated: Soybean, corn, cottonseed oils -We should eat more Polyunsaturated Fats -Liquid at room temperature Hydrogenation-process which turns double bonds into single bonds therefore increasing saturation and making it a more solid fat. -Changes some unsaturated fatty acids to Trans Fatty Acids
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Leading source of Trans Fats are: fried chicken, French fries, pot pies, cakes, cookies, pastries, chips HDL- High Density Lipoproteins - Good Cholesterol -Transport cholesterol out of the arteries to protect against heart disease LDL- Low Density Lipoprotein -Transports cholesterol to the organs and tissues - Can accumulate in the artery walls when excessively consumed - Bad Cholesterol PROTEINS Daily intake 10-35% of total daily calories 4 Calories per gram -
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