Bio2.1LectureExam2StudyGuide.pdf - Bio Exam#2 Study Guide...

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Bio Exam #2 Study Guide Exam #1 Concepts 1. What does it mean to say science is provisional and that proof is relative to the evidence available at that time? Science is provisional because there are no absolutes in science. Nothing can be proven with absolute certainty, but supported with evidence. Proof is relative to the evidence available at the time because technology is advancing and as this happens ideas became more accepted than before because there is more certain evidence to back it up. Robert Hooke had limited technology compared to Theodore Schwann (every part of animal looked at was made of cells) and Matthias Schleiden (every part of plant looked at was made out of cells) who had improved microscopes, sites, and staining.These advancements allow the cell theory to develop because there was evidence to support that cells were the basic unit of life and all living things were composed of cells. This is compared to Hooke who used technology to view the water passages in the cork involved in plant growth, but could calculate from his work what the cell was composed with. Rudolf Virchow discovered cell division 2. Scientific evidence suggests that all living things share a common ancestor (the unity of life). What evidence supports this statement that all living organisms are related? Darwin saw anatomical similarities between diverse species that were alive/extinct. Despite this, most evidence to support the unity of life comes from our DNA/RNA. As we know RNA is very critical to life but has evolved very slowly. This has allowed scientists to go global and look at similarities between distantly related organisms, make genes very useful for determining evolutionary relationships. Additionally we are now able to look at DNA sequences for comparison. the biggest unifying characteristic among all domains is that they all share a genetic code. They use the same letters and if you put them in certain sequences, they have the same results. Living things also have the same building blocks in common (amino acids) and they use ATP for energy. These characteristics show that life evolved from one single cell because living organisms all seem to be a variation of the same building blocks. Some are simpler, and others are more complex, but the more complex ones must have evolved over a long period of time through mutations that just happened to help those organisms thrive in their environment. It is unlikely that any complex organism magically arranged themselves into a functioning self-sustaining and self-replicating
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system, when nature favors disorder. They must have come from simpler organisms, the simplest one being the cell. 3. Compare and contrast Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea and discuss why horizontal gene transfer makes using molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships between these domains challenging.
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