Familiarize yourself with the below terms. At the end of this module, you will be required to take a multiple-
choice quiz which tests your comprehension of these terms.
To be prepared for the quiz, as well as for these type questions on future exams, you should be able to identify
the following five characteristics of each term (as much as is possible, given the nature of the term):
e. Why? Why is this term so important that my instructor wants me to be familiar with it?
The Lost Cause (Pg 400):
In the late 1860s, in the aftermath of Reconstruction, southern whites
adopted a view of their recent history called the "Lost Cause." The Lost Cause justified the South's
actions during the war and explained why a supposedly "superior" civilization had lost the war.
Confederate soldiers were portrayed as noble, Christian warriors who were defending their region's
honor from the rapacious Yankees, ignoring the immorality of slavery and its role in precipitating the
war. According to the Lost Cause, the Old South was a period of perfect racial harmony, and
Reconstruction was a living hell because "radical Republicans" had "let loose" supposedly uncivilized
blacks upon the white South. The long-term significance of the Lost Cause was that acceptance of this
The Freedman’s Bureau (Pg 402):
Established by Congress
n March 1865, as an agency of the army
directed by General Oliver O. Howard.
The Freedman’s Bureau distributed food to millions of former
It established schools staffed by missionaries and teachers who had been sent to the South by
Freedmen’s Aid Societies and other private church groups in the North.
Congress expanded the powers
for the Freedmen's Bureau, gave them authority over labor contracts, established separate trial courts for
freedmen, and granted the bureau authority over all abandoned and confiscated lands in the South. Next,
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which made freedmen citizens and extended to them
federal protection against intimidation and reprisals.
The Radicals (Pg 403)
Led by Representative Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Senator Charles
Sumner of Massachusetts.
Congressional "Radicals," so-called because they believed in racial equality
and harsh terms for former Confederates, were appalled by Johnson's actions and the southern response.
They refused to seat the southern delegates and, in one of the rarest of occurrences in American politics,
used Congress' powers of the purse and veto to take control of the federal government.
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan (Pg 403):
Lincoln announced his Reconstruction Plan in December
It offered a general amnesty to white Southerners-other than high officials of the Confederacy-
who would pledge loyalty to the government and accept the elimination of slavery.
Whenever 10% of
the number of voters in 1860 took the oath in any state, those loyal voters could set up a state