ch19 - Chapter 19 Emerging Management Practices Questions...

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Chapter 19 Emerging Management Practices Questions 1. Business process reengineering, BPR, is a method of examining processes to identify and then eliminate, reduce, or replace functions and processes that add little customer value to products or services. BPR is a tool to achieve radical changes in business processes. Managers apply BPR to achieve wholesale gains in cost or quality. 2. BPR is a tool that leads to revolutionary changes in operations. Often these changes leverage technology and reduce the required labor content of a process or product. The consequence of reduced demand for labor is reduction of the workforce. 3. Downsizing is any management action that reduces employment and restructures operations as a response to competitive pressures. To maintain or increase market share in today’s competitive markets, firms must continually strive to increase the quality and functionality of products while reducing costs. These pressures cause firms to continually evaluate their processes and increase their dependence on evolving technologies. As the level of automation increases, efficiency increases and the demand for labor is reduced. Layoffs are the inevitable result. The risks include the depletion of future talent pools, a permanent loss of organizational knowledge, a loss of trust between management and workers, and destruction of a corporate culture of cooperation between managers and workers. 4. The expansion of operations around the globe has increased the diversity of the workforce of many firms. Employees of large firms often speak different languages, and have different cultures, religions, and work habits. The accounting systems in global firms face an increased burden because accounting is often the only language that is common to all managers and employees and, therefore, the only language in which communication can occur freely without an interpreter. 5. In the United States, increased diversification has resulted from both the passage of new laws and the self-serving actions of firms. Federal, state, and local governments have enacted statutes to pursue affirmative action programs and outlaw discrimination. However, many firms now pursue diversification beyond the legal mandates because managers believe a more diverse workforce offers advantages in serving a diverse customer base. 1
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130 6. ERP systems are packaged software programs that allow companies to automate data gathering and processing and integrate information feeder systems to provide useful real-time information to managers. ERP systems differ from prior generations of systems in the extent to which the various feeder systems (e.g., payroll, accounts payable) are integrated into a common database. ERP systems also integrate supply (value) chains to a much greater extent than previous production management systems.
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2008 for the course ACCT 310 taught by Professor Nacemagner during the Fall '08 term at Western Kentucky University.

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ch19 - Chapter 19 Emerging Management Practices Questions...

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