ANTH 202 Final Notes

ANTH 202 Final Notes - ANTH 202 Final Notes Chapter 13...

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ANTH 202 Final Notes Chapter 13 Communication: conveying meaningful messages from one animal/human/insect to another Eye contact, body language, language Language: systematic set of arbitrary symbols shared among a group and passed on Spoken, signed or written Linguistic Anthropology Boas one of the 1 st Washoe and sign language Fieldwork Challenges Pragmatics: language in use Frame analysis: pinpoint where breakdown in language occurs Must situate communication in its cultural context Samoa: turn-taking, grammar shows status and role relationship Observer’s paradox: impossibility of doing research on “natural” communication with affecting its “naturalness” Human Verbal Language Productivity and Displacement: key characteristics Productivity: ability to communicate many messages efficiently Vs. Gibbons Displacement: can talk about past, future and present Formal Properties of Language Phonemes: sounds that make a difference in meaning Hindi “d” sounds Grammar: rules for combining sounds into meaningful sequences Language Origins and History Human paralanguage: all forms of non-verbal communication Linguistic relativism: all are equally successful Writing Systems Earliest: Mesopotamia, Egypt, China Logographs: symbols that convey meaning through a form of picture that resembles what it refers to Emergence with political development State Inca and quipu (knot recording system) Historical Linguistics Study of language change through history using formal methods that compare shifts over time and across space in formal aspects of language like phonetics, grammar, semantics Phonetics: production of speech sounds Language families: clusters of related languages Proto-Indo-European: PIE
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Language, Thought and Society Ethnography of Speaking Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: language determines culture Language determinism: language determines consciousness of the world and behavior Sociolinguistics: culture, society and social position determine the content and form of language Class, occupation Focal vocabularies: clusters of words that refer to important features of a particular culture Language Socialization: 2 processes: socialization to use language and socialization through language Language learning through everyday interactions Indexicality: certain linguistic features “index” the identities, actions and feelings of the speaker Bilingualism Linguistic pluralism: tolerance for linguistic diversity Dialects Way of speaking in a particular place or subordinate variety of language arising from local circumstances Cockney in London, joual in Quebec (working-class Montreal) Wasn’t allowed in the media until 1970’s…adds color Language Codes Ways of speaking that may include marked vocabulary, grammar and intonation depending on age, gender, class, job, religion, etc. Code-switch: move from one code to another as needed, often between formal
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ANTH 202 Final Notes - ANTH 202 Final Notes Chapter 13...

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