BIOL 111 Midterm Notes

BIOL 111 Midterm Notes - Bio Midterm Notes Biology= bios...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Bio Midterm Notes Biology= bios (life) + logos (reason) Living Organisms 1. Take energy from outside to build structures inside 2. Reproduce 3. Respond to the environment by resisting (maintaining homeostasis) and taking advantage of opportunities (migration) Levels of Organization Atoms-molecule-cells-tissue-organ-organ system-organism-population-community- biosphere Diversity and Bacteria Main Factors that control diversity-Area: doubling area increases diversity by 10-25 %-Climate: warm, wet climates have more species-Humans/Species: charismatic mega-fauna (cute, irrational) vs. helpful/harmful (rational) Measuring Diversity 1. Numeric diversity (organism breakdown e.g. 62% Arthropods) 2. Functional diversity (differences of size, shape and lives) 3. Genetic diversity (evolutionary separation) * Prokaryotes most genetically and functionally diverse Summary 7-10 million species 99.5% of species extinct More diverse near equator on large landmasses with good climates Animals/insects/beetles most numerically diverse Humans are biased toward vertebrates and plants Quasi-Life Prions Protein with odd folding that changes other protein into itself when it meets them Cause many diseases (spongiform encephalopathys, mad cow, kuru) Virus 2 components: nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA), protein coat (capsid) Obligate parasite (inserts genes into cell and tricks it into making copies of the virus) Cell breaks open after replication and releases virus AIDS, herpes, colds Hard to treat b/c it involves attacking humans cells Classified by genetic material (DNA easy to get copied, RNA acts as mRNA) Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote PRO EUK Nucleus N Y Lipid Organelles N Y Cell Wall Y (peptidoglycan) N (or different chemistry) Flagella Rotary Whip Ribosomes Smaller Larger DNA 1-ring N-strands Prokaryotes-Bacteria 3 Challenges of life 1. Energy transformation = most creative 2. Reproduction: DNA replicates then cell splits, various mechanisms (plasmids) for DNA exchange 3. Response to environment: some produce endospores, chemotaxis (toward high ) Classification Traditional (shape): coccus=sphere, bacilli=rod, strepto=chain, spirochete=spiral Cell wall: Gram-Positive (thick peptidoglycan) vs. Gram-Negative (thin peptidoglycan with other lipid membrane) DNA sequencing (more modern): differences vs. similarities show relationships * Good bacteria fight bad bacteria * Easier to fight than viruses Prokaryotes-Archea (often extremophiles) Bacteria Archea Eukaryotes Peptidoglycan Y N Y Nucleus/Organelles N N Y Membrane Lipids Normal Weird Normal Ribosomes 705 805 705 Eating (read text) Oxidation-reduction rxn releases energy (transfer of low IE atom e.g. C, H to one with a high EA e.g. O) Combined with C to build sugar, lipids, proteins Input types (use manyeukaryotes only one each) Anaerobic fermentation (chemoorganoheterotrophs) use lactic acid/ethanol...
View Full Document

Page1 / 11

BIOL 111 Midterm Notes - Bio Midterm Notes Biology= bios...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online