Middle_East - The Middle East Geography Crossroads: trade...

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The Middle East
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Geography Crossroads: trade & conflict Arid/semi arid deserts and grasslands Fertile river valleys: Nile, Jordan, Tigris, & Euphrates Consequences Complex irrigation systems: Shaduf & Qanat Nomadic pastoralism
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History Ottoman Empire, 1580 1918 Hellenistic Empire, 3 rd BCE Arab Conquest, 630-900
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Culture: Islam Monotheistic religion: “submission” Muhammad Qur’an or Koran Five Pillars of Islam ( Arkaan ) Shahada : “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad as His prophet” Prayer five times a day Giving of alms A month of daytime fasting (Ramadan) Hajj : pilgrimage to Mecca Divison: Shi’a vs Sunna Conflict over succession: Shi’a (10%): Ali and the Imams Sunna (90%): elections and local clerics
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Political Science Transition of nation-states Few had feeling of common nationalism Secular governments arose (often anti-Western) Tribe/kinship informal networks remained Political Islam: charitable, political and militant
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Middle_East - The Middle East Geography Crossroads: trade...

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