Africa Final2 - Africa Africa Africa Today Africa Today...

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Unformatted text preview: Africa Africa Africa Today Africa Today Area: 11.6 million sq. miles Population: 732 million Countries: over 50 Density: 63 per sq mi Sahara Desert Sahel Tropical Rainforests Geography Geography Rivers: Nile, Congo, Niger, Zambezi Inter­Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Acidic Soil: rapid decline in productivity Culture Culture Northern Africa Islamization [Map 8]: religion Arabization [Map 9]: language/culture Sub­Saharan Africa Islamization only Christianity and Animism Bantu culture Economics Economics GNI per capita [Map 68] Gabon: $3,340 N. & S. Africa: $786 ­ $3,125 All others: $785 or less (Burundi = $90) Reliance on Primary Products [Map 75 & 72]: Agriculture, Ranching, Natural Resources Except? FDI [Map 77]: low Characteristics Characteristics Except? Foreign Aid and Debt [Map 78] Former Colonial Powers HIPC Consequences High infant mortality [Map 41] High Illiteracy [Map 46] High Unemployment [Map 49] Political Systems Political Systems Independence: 1957 – 1974 Started as replicas of European representative systems Quickly devolved into military regimes, civil war, or one party states Except? 1945­ to 1995 Third Wave [Map 12] Democratic, recently established multiparty system majority Failed and Collapsed states 9 of top 20 Colonial Past: North vs South Two Civil Wars: Marginalization 1958 – 1972 1983 ­ 2004: Oil & Islamization Comprehensive Peace Agreement Darfur: guerrillas vs army/janjaweed Control and access to natural resources between farmers and herders Uneven development between core and periphery Civil war peace accords Politicized cultural identities Genocide? Sudan Sudan Janjaweed Darfur refugee Rwanda Rwanda Colonial Past: Hutu vs Tutsi Hutu Revolution, 1959­62 Tutsi refugees Rwandan Patriotic Front Problems Land issue Coffee vs Food security Government debt October War, 1990 – 1993 Arusha Accords, 1993 Genocide DRC DRC Colonial Legacy: Belgium Independence: Mobutu Sese Seko Corruption Africanization: Zaire Western Support Rebel movement Overthrow of Mobutu (1997): Laurent Kabila Hutu refugee militias Rwanda/Uganda invasion Dictatorial powers DRC: Africa’s World War DRC: Africa’s World War Africa’s World War, 1998­2003 Ethnic tensions: Tutsi rebellion Rwanda/Uganda support rebels Angola/Namibia/Zimbabwe support DRC Reasons for interference Regional power ambitions Fear of DRC disintegration Interest in resources Peace agreement, 2003 Transitional government UN Peacekeepers (MONUC) Elections (2006): Joseph Kabila AIDS [Map 51] AIDS [Map 51] Causes Economic: Poverty Access to education Access to testing Access to health care Social: Stigma Cultural Polygamy Gender inequality Myths Political: conflict Consequences Economic Social Loss of productivity Loss of professionals Loss of FDI Scarce resources for other needs Family disintegration Orphaned children – less education Stigma Solutions Treat as a public problem Increase education Get community involved Media awareness Adults Children Traditional Healers Empowerment of Women Example: Botswana New laws Enforcement of laws Free testing and medications AIDS tests required anytime visit clinic/doctor Terms/Topics Terms/Topics Sahel ITCZ Comprehensive Peace Agreement Janjaweed Genocide Hutu Tutsi Arusha Accords Mobutu Sese Seko Characteristics of African Geography Characteristics of African culture Characteristics of the African economy How did colonialism contribute to the violence in Rwanda, Sudan, and Congo? Other causes of the Sudanese civil wars, violence in Darfur, Rwandan genocide, Africa’s World War ...
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