lecture 1.pptx - Genetics lecture 1 June 6 2017 Why do we...

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Genetics lecture 1 June 6, 2017
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2 Why do we study genetics? 1.) Genetics (and molecular biology, which grew out of genetics) has been the area of biology that has contributed the most to deepening our understanding all areas of biology. That includes evolution. 2.) The techniques developed in genetics and molecular biology labs have spread to other areas of biology, including ecology and conservation biology.
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3 3.) These same methods were the basis for the biotechnology industry that began in the late 1970’s. 4.) The methods of molecular biology are being used even beyond biology and biotech, for example in forensic crime labs.
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4 In this course we begin by studying molecular biology, then turn to classical genetics: -- molecular biology -- mitosis and meiosis -- Mendelian genetics -- genetic recombination, gene mapping, linkage -- introductory bacterial and bacteriophage genetics -- sex determination and dosage compensation -- chromosome aberrations -- mitochondrial and plastid DNA
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5 In the first few weeks we will study the structure of DNA, DNA replication, transcription and translation. These topics are covered in chapters 10, 11, 13 and 14 of the textbook. We do not study everything in these chapters! MasteringGenetics homework assignments will be made for the relevant parts of these chapters. After the molecular biology we will pick up in the textbook at chapter 2, and continue through chapter 9.
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6 I will also sometimes take a break from the textbook, and give lectures on other topics. In the past these have included color vision genetics, the BRCA1 breast cancer susceptibility gene, and the population bottleneck in Northern elephant seals. From time to time we will use case studies. At the end of the semester in particular we will use case studies to review some of the topics.
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7 Nucleic Acid Building Blocks - 1 Three essential components: Nitrogenous base –purines vs pyrimidines Pentose Sugar (deoxyribose, ribose) Phosphate Group
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8 Nucleic Acid Building Blocks - 2 Three essential components: Nitrogenous base –purines vs pyrimidines Pentose Sugar (deoxyribose, ribose) Phosphate Group RNA has a hydroxyl group at C-2’, while DNA has a hydrogen.
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9 Nucleic Acid Building Blocks - 3 Three essential components: Nitrogenous base –purines vs pyrimidines Pentose Sugar (deoxyribose, ribose) Phosphate Group Nucleoside= base + sugar Nucleotide= base+sugar+phosphate dAMP
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10
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11 Nucleotide Chains Phosphodiester bond links together two nucleotides 3’ carbon of sugar has hydroxyl (OH) 5’ carbon of sugar has a phosphate (PO 4 )
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