Chapter-9-Sleep-and-Sleep-Disorders.docx - Chapter 9 Sleep and Sleep Disorders Sleep is a state during which an individual lacks conscious awareness of

Chapter-9-Sleep-and-Sleep-Disorders.docx - Chapter 9 Sleep...

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Chapter 9 – Sleep and Sleep Disorders Sleep : is a state during which an individual lacks conscious awareness of environmental surroundings and from which one can be easily aroused. Sleep Disorder/ Sleep Disturbances : Terms used to indicate conditions that result in poor sleep quality. Many sleep disorders go untreated, however they can lead to many other health issues. Physiological Sleep Mechanisms Wake Behavior : Associated with activated cortical brain wave pattern that is triggered by the reticular activating system. A problem with these systems is what cause sleep disturbances with people with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Sleep Behavior : Melatonin, adenosine, and somatostatin are examples of sleep promoting neurotransmitters, and cause fatigue when they bind to receptors. Peptides that are released in the GI tract after food ingestion also mediate sleepiness. Circadian Rhythms : Rhythms and behaviors that fluctuate in a 24-hour period of time. This is monitored by the hypothalamus and is synchronized to the amount of sunlight in the environment. Sleep Architecture : Ideal amount of sleep is 7-8 hours at one time. Most adults transition from awake to asleep in 10-20 minutes. After that, each sleep cycle is 90 minutes. o NREM Sleep : consumes about 75-80% of the sleep cycle and is divided into 3 stages. Stage 1 : Low eye movement and occurs first as the transition between wakefulness to sleep. This lasts 1-7 minutes and the person is easily awakened. Stage 2 : Is a period of sound sleep where the individuals heart rate decreases and this stage lasts 10-25 minutes. Stage 3 : Deep sleep, also known as slow wave sleep. This is the deepest stage of sleep and lasts 20-40 minutes. Dreaming is common in this stage but not as common as during REM sleep.
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