PSY 220 notes.docx - PSY220 physical cognitive psychosocial...

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PSY 220: 8/31/17 How do developmentalists define development? - physical - cognitive - psychosocial Traditional view of development: “gain-stability-loss” Modern View of Development:  - Development involves gains, losses, neutral changes and continuities in each phase of  the lifespan Figure 1.1 Textbook:  - What does the typical path of development look like across the lifespan? Exact years can  be a bit fuzzy especially as age increases. - What markers do we use to divide the lifespan? o Age grade:  socially defined age groups within a society. Confers statuses, roles, privileges, responsibilities. Rites of passage mark transitions. o Age norms:  behavioral expectations by age Basis for the social clock which influences our sense of when should be  done and our adjustment to life transitions (marriage, school, retirement  etc) Have weakened our society. - How long can we expect to live? o Life expectancy : the average number of years a newborn can be expected to  live The average number of years a newborn can be expected to live. Born in  early 2000s: Life expectancy is 78 years. 81 for a white female, 77 for a black female 76 for a white male, 70 for a black male. Historical change: differences between men and women and between  races have narrowed But differences between high and low SES  (socioeconomic status) groups have widened.  - How our views of development have changed across history: o Childhood:  pre 17 th  century, children as mini adults. 17 th  century onward:  innocents, protect and nurture. o Adolescence:  not a distinct phase until late 19 th , early 20 th  centuries. Before  then, just children   adults.  o Emerging adulthood:  recently defined in the 2000s. o Middle age:  recognized mid 20 th  century o Old age:  defined in 20 th  century.  - What are the main elements of the nature nurture issue? o Nature : natural outcome of genetic blueprint. Influences of heredity (genes).  Emphasis upon the process of maturation. Maturation : biological development according to a genetic plan.  o Nurture : the influences of environment (experiences). Emphasis upon learning
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Learning ; experiences cause changes (that endure) in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.  - How does Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems model address both nature and  nurture? o Explains how biology and environment interact in development. o Model involves bi directional interactions between the individuals bio and psych  characteristics  Microsystem:  immediate environment.
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