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Unformatted text preview: 2/16/07 Psych 2 Psych
Principles of Psychology
Christopher Gade Christopher Office: 5315 Tolman Hall Office hours: MW 2:00-3:00 Email: email@example.com Lectures: MWF 3:00-4:00, 100 GPB What’s on tap? What’s
Today we’re going to discuss behaviorism Today and how it relates to learning. and We’ll do this by… Briefly reviewing the field of behaviorism and Briefly discussing one of its most influential characters. discussing Going over one of the most popular behavioral Going discoveries of all time. discoveries Discussing classical conditioning and the basics Discussing of how this learning process works. of Learning: Learning: A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. organism’s Behaviorism: the approach to Psychology that involves observable cause-and-effect relationships between conditions and behavior.
• Origins in ‘stimulus-response’ psychology. • Takes into account an organism’s history of experiences, i.e. knowledge. • Aims to decode the ‘basic laws of behavior’. • Assumes a deterministic perspective and emphasizes the influence of the environment. John B Watson John
Pioneer in the field of behaviorism Considered by many to be the founding father of behaviorism. This might not be the case, but he was definitely their poster boy. Famously known for his statement: “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own Give specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select…” might Most famous experiment was with Baby Albert. Associative Learning (Classical Conditioning):
We link together events/experiences that have some kind of association such that you can predict one from the other:
• • • • temporal sequence, they happen close in time. meaning, they represent the same thing. function, they serve the same function. salience, they share the same emotional significance. Bank teller → ATM 9/11 → WMD Lightning → thunder A → excellent Ivan Pavlov (1839-1946) • Originally interested in the digestive system of dogs. • From his research, he discovered ‘psychic salivations’ that dogs would show (for which he was awarded a Nobel prize) • Realized that this form of learning was interesting and dedicated his time to studying how dogs developed this behavior
• 5:28 Classical Conditioning In this form of learning, the learned responses develop from an initial pairing of two pieces of information:
• The unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that elicits an unlearned, or reflexive response. The unconditioned response (UR): a response to a stimulus that is automatic. • After the initial pairing of information, a “neutral stimulus” (NS) is presented to the individual. A “training” or “pairing” procedure then begins until the neutral stimulus is recognized to be associated with the unconditioned stimulus: This pairing of stimuli eventually leads to a “conditioned response” (CR) to the newly “conditioned stimulus” (CS). Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Important concepts • A learning curve tells us whether conditioning is occurring, that is, whether, when and how strongly the CS is eliciting the CR over time. Second-order conditioning is a process of adding new CSs to the conditioned CSs (sequentially). If, after the conditioning, the CS is presented without the US repeatedly, the association will deteriorate and the CS will cease to elicit the CR – this is called extinction. – however, extinguished associations can be reconditioned (usually faster than the initial conditioning) AND, sometimes organisms show spontaneous recovery of extinguished behaviors. • • Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
Strength of CR
Acquisition (CS+US) Spontaneous recovery of CR Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Pause What influences the strength of a learned response through classical conditioning? through Conditioning occurs more rapidly when the Conditioning neutral stimulus is relatively unfamiliar. neutral The less time that elapses between the The presentation of the CS and the UCS, the faster the CR is acquired. the The CR will be acquired more quickly when the The CS precedes the UCS (forward conditioning). CS Specific connections between CS’s and UCS’s Specific are stronger in different species. are Rat and Poison example What about stimuli that are similar to the neutral stimulus?
• Sometimes, organisms respond to new, irrelevant stimuli that closely resemble the original Neutral stimulus with the same CR, this is called generalization. • Organisms can also learn through conditioning to discriminate between similar stimuli, if a CS– is introduced into the conditioning process. What does this tell us about learning? What
It tells us how we can learn about how our minds It might pair stimuli with each other. might However, it doesn’t inform us about how we However, know about what to do and not to do in our world. world. Next Wednesday we’ll revisit the world of Next behaviorism from a different perspective; from the world of operant conditioning. the Have a good weekend! Have ...
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