Lecture 15 _Problems with Our Memories_

Lecture 15 _Problems with Our Memories_ - 2/26/07 Psych 2...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/26/07 Psych 2 Psych 2 Principles of Psychology Christopher Gade Office: 5315 Tolman Hall Office hours: MW 2:00­3:00 Email: gadecj@berkeley.edu Lectures: MWF 3:00­4:00, 100 GPB In the last lecture we In the last lecture we learned about… ► How memory was first studied. ► Memory testing techniques. memories ► Different types of Temporal Content specific Today, we’re going to discuss how our Today, we’re going to discuss how our memories can be erroneous at times. ► Problems with our memories Interference Serial order effects Reconstruction effects ► False memories ► Hindsight bias ► How to improve our memories Levels of processing Encoding specificity Learning intervals Mnemonic devices Problems with our memories… Problems with our memories… ► Interference: a loss of memory accuracy that is due to an overlap of information when trying to recall specific details of lists/events/ people. Proactive interference: new material increases forgetting of old material. ►Flowers ►New addresses (zip codes) Retroactive interference: old material increases forgetting of new material. ►Fruits ►Specific details about ex’s Problems with our memories (cont.) Problems with our memories (cont.) ► Serial order (position) effect: the forgetting of information/items due to their position in a list of information/items. Primacy effect: the ability to remember information at the beginning of a list more easily. ►Word lists 1 & 3 (primacy effect) ►Word list 2 (primacy effect removed) Recency effect: the ability to remember information at the end of a list more easily. ►Word lists 1 & 2 (recency effect) ►Word list 3 (recency effect removed) Problems with our memories (cont.) Problems with our memories (cont.) ► Reconstruction effect: our tendency to include inaccurate information into our memories in an attempt to “fill in the gaps”. Reconstructing stories and adding details ► Subway video ► Word list 4 ► Note: This happens a lot more than we think it does! Creating false memories versus uncovering of forgotten memories ► Freud’s work on repression Hindsight bias ► Elizabeth Loftus research (in the text) ► “I remember thinking that today would not be my day.” ► “I never really liked him/her much anyway.” ► “I knew we shouldn’t have invested in that company.” How do we improve our memories? How do we improve our memories? ► Let’s try something out… Task 1 Task 1 ► In this task, you’ll see a list of words, remember how many of these words have at least three vowels in them. Task 1 Task 1 ► In this task, you’ll see a list of words, remember how many of these words rhyme with the word stack. Task 1 Task 1 ► In this task, you’ll see a list of words, remember how many of these words relate to something that you valued from your past. Mouse Mouse Shore Flight Shack Sheet Kayak House Attack Assure Unpack Blouse Smack How to improve our memories (cont.) How to improve our memories (cont.) ► Levels of processing: The deeper you think about something, the more likely you are to remember the information. More time spent on the information More cognitive/neural connections are formed More retrieval cues are available How to improve our memories (cont.) How to improve our memories (cont.) ► Encoding specificity: we’re more likely to remember information when we are in a condition that resembles the condition that we were in when we learned the information. Mood dependency ► Recollection of traumatic events ► If someone’s suffering from depression­ they’re probably gonna recall sad information Situation dependency ► Baddelley’s scuba diving experiment­ had ppl go down in scuba diving suits to memorize lists of words. Had half try to recall on the bottom while other stayed down below. ► Have a test in the same classroom State dependency ► When you’re using caffeine… ► When you’re using alcohol?­ exception How to improve our memories (cont.) How to improve our memories (cont.) ► Increased learning intervals Allows for deeper processing Counteract proactive and retroactive interference Allow for more encoding specificity opportunities ► Mnemonic devices ► EGBDF ► OCEAN THE mnemonic device Chunking­ ear ring bike rack corn dog; put things into categories ► Phone #’s ► List #1 Information pairings­ categorizing information at a higher level­ these are modes of transportation­ car bike; animals: bears, dogs, cats Method of loci­ pair groceries with familiar things. ► Grocery Lists­ place items in the familiar places. ► List #2 So what have we learned? So what have we learned? ► We learned about how our memories can go awry at times. ► We also learned about a few methods that we can use in order to improve our memories. fun!!! ► We learned that studying memory can be That’s All That’s All ► This is the last lecture before the 2nd exam. There will be a review session on Wednesday, followed by the test on Friday. Enjoy your studies. ► See you then. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2008 for the course PSYCH 2 taught by Professor Don'tremember during the Spring '04 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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