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Test 4 study guide ch 16 17

Test 4 study guide ch 16 17 - DerekTobia 17 December13,2008...

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Derek Tobia December 13, 2008 Study Guide Test 4 Chapters 16 + 17 Social Cognition and Relationships Constructing Reality I. The origins of Attribution Theory A. Attribution Theory - A general approach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate causal explanations. 1. Fritz Heider believed everyone was an intuitive psychologist and believed people attribute things based on whether they are Dispositional (Internal) or situational (External ). B. The Covariation Principle - Suggests that people should attribute a behavior to a casual factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occurred but was absent whenever it didn’t occur. 1. Harold Kelly specified the variables that people use to make their attributions. She believed people assess covariation with respect to three dimensions. i. Distinctiveness - Refers to whether the behavior is specific to a particular situation- does your friend scream in response to all horses. ii. Consistency- refers to whether the behavior occurs repeatedly in response to this situation- has this horse made your friend scream in the past. iii. Consensus- Whether other people also produce the same behavior in the same situation- is everyone screaming at the horse. II. The Fundamental Attribution Error - Represents the dual tendency for people to overestimate dispositional factors (blame or credit people ) and to underestimate situational factors (blame or credit the environment) when searching for the cause of some behavior or outcome. 1. Example- If you’re friend is running late you think it is because they left late not because they got into an accident. III. Expectations and Self-fulfilling Prophecies A. Self-fulfilling prophecies - Predictions made about some future behavior or even that modify behavioral interactions so as to produce what is expected. 1. School studies are very strong. Think of the rat experiment- smart rats and stupid ones. IV. Behaviors that Confirm Expectations A. Behavioral confirmation- The process by which someone’s s expectations about another person actually influence the second person to behave in ways that confirm the original hypothesis. Attitudes, Attitude Change, and Action I. Attitudes and Behaviors A. Attitude - A positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, and ideas. 1. Cognitive Attitude - How you think or reason- Thoughts about Angelina Jolie 2. Affective Attitude - Feelings/emotions -Angelina Jolie evokes? 3. Behavioral Attitude - Will you take action- Will you see her movie? B. Attitudes and behaviors/ Thoughts and actions- Behavior follows attitude more when… 1. Accessibility - The strength of the association between an attitude object and a person’s evaluation of that object.
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