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Unformatted text preview: Derek Tobia December 3, 2008 Study Guide Test 4- Chapter 13 Understanding Human Personality Type and Trait Personality Theories Personality- The complex set of psychological qualities that influence an individual’s characteristic patterns of behavior across different situations and over time. A way of describing personality is by classifying them into a limited number of distinct types and scaling the degree to which they can be described by different traits . .I Categorizing by Types .A Personality Types- Distinct patterns of personality characteristics used to assign people to categories; qualitative differences, rather than differences in degree used to discriminate among people. Non-overlapping .B The first categorizing was by Hippocrates who theorized that the body contained four fluids or humors; each associated with a temperament- A pattern of emotions and behaviors. Galen then built on this idea by saying the body predominant fluid in them: .1 Blood- Sanguine- Cheerful and active .2 Phlegm- Phlegmatic- Apathetic and sluggish .3 Black Bile- Melancholy- sad and brooding .4 Yellow Bile- Choleric- Irritable and excitable .C William Sheldon came up with a type theory that related physique to temperament. .1 Endomorphic- Fat- relaxed, fond of eating, and sociable. .2 Mesomorphic- muscular- physical people, filled with energy, courage and assertive tendencies .3 Ectomorphic- Thin- Brainy, artistic, and introverted- thinks about life rather than consuming it or acting on it. .D Frank Sulloway proposed a type theory based on birth order. He based this on Darwin’s idea that organisms diversify to find niches in which they will survive. .1 He believed first borns immediately command their parents’ love and attention and seek to maintain that initial attachment by identifying and complying with their parents. .2 And that later born children need to find a different niche- one in which they don’t follow parents’ examples.- Born to rebel- seek to excel in the domains where older siblings have not already established superiority. .II Describing with Traits .A Traits- Enduring qualities or attributes that predispose individuals to behave consistently across situations .B Allport’s Trait Approach- viewed traits as the building blocks of personality and the source of individuality. He identified three kinds of traits. .1 Cardinal Traits- traits around which a person organizes their life- Ex. Mother Teresa- helping others .2 Central Traits- Traits that represent major characteristics of a person- Ex. Honesty .3 Secondary Traits- Specific personal features that help predict and individual’s behaviors- Ex- food preferences. .C Identifying Universal Trait Dimensions- .1 Raymond Cattell took a list of adjectives compiled by Allport and Odbert- to uncover the appropriate small set of basic trait dimensions. He found that 16 factors underline human personality and called them source traits- They provide the underlying source for the surface behaviors we think of as personality. the underlying source for the surface behaviors we think of as personality....
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2008 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.
- Fall '08