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Unformatted text preview: Derek Tobia I. Assessment Vocabulary- Psychological Assessment- the use of specified testing procedures to evaluate the abilities, behaviors, and person al qualities of people. It is referred to as the measurement of individual differences because the majority of assessments specify how an individual is different from another on a given dimension. A. The History of Assessment- Galton 1. Sir Francis Galton was the key figure in the development of western intelligence. He was interested in how and why people differ in their abilities. He wanted to know why some people were gifted and others were not. 2. He came up with the four important ideas about the assessment of intelligence i. 1. Quantifiable- Differences in intelligence in terms of degrees of intelligence. Numerical values could be assigned to difference levels. ii. 2. Normal Distribution- differences among people formed a bell- shaped curve. On this curve most people score in the middle and fewer are found toward the 2 extremes. iii. 3. Tests- Intelligence or mental ability could be measured by objective tests, tests on which each question had only one right answer iv. 4. Correlations- the precise extent to which two sets of test scores were related could be determined by a statistical procedure. 3. Galton believed that intelligence was inherited and believed in Eugenics- improving the human species by applying evolutionary theory to encouraging biologically superior people to interbreed. B. Basic Features of the Formal Assessment 1. Formal Assessment- The systematic procedures and measurement instruments used by professionals to assess an individuals functioning, aptitudes, abilities, or mental states. 2. The assessment instrument should be reliable, valid, and standardized. i. Reliability- How consistent are the results? Test-Retest Reliability- If given the same test 2 times, you should obtain similar results. The longer the interval in scores between tests, the less reliable they are. Alternate form ability/ parallel forms- Give 2 tests that measure the same skills just change the questions, to eliminate training effects....
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2008 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.
- Fall '08