PPT Notes.docx - EES-021 Notes Earth System Science Earth...

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EES-021 NotesEarth System ScienceEarth System Science: Studies the whole Earth as a system of many interacting parts and focuseson the changes within and between these partsFour interacting reservoirs: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, geosphereSystem: Any portion of the universe that can be isolated from other portions for the purposes ofstudyTypes of systems:Isolated (No energy or matter in or out)Closed (No matter exchange, but energy can)Open (What happens for Earth systems we study, but not planet as a whole)Earth in space is a closed system (little exchange of matter, sun provides energy fromoutside the Earth. The reservoirs are all connected and matter and energy is exchangedbetween them.Energy can’t be recycled endlessly because of laws of thermodynamics (energy always changesform a more concentrated form to a less concentrated form).1.You can’t win (you can’t get something from nothing, because matter and energy areconserved)2.You can’t break even (entropy always increases)3.You can’t get out of the game (Absolute zero is unattainable)Mastering Questions:If all were accessible, which would be the best for geologists to examine to better understandEarth’s internal structure? An iron meteorite
The nebular theory is the most widely accepted view of the origin of our solar system. Which ofthe following is a short description of the nebular theory?
The enormous cloud of gas and dust initially condensed due to particle attraction. What forcethen pulled the cloud into a flat disk shape?
What object or class of objects makes up most of the solar system’s mass? The SunThrough the course of time, bodies in our solar system have become fewer in numberandlarger in sizedue to collisions.
Hypothesis: Untested idea, Theory: Thoroughly tested ideaObservation: What you seeInference: An attempt at explaining an occurrence based on previous knowledgePositive temperature feedbacks (enhance initial effect, i.e. rolling a ball down a hill, it goesfaster and faster):Increased ocean temperature leads to melting of ice capsIncreased temperature leads to drought and a decrease in vegetationNegative temperature feedbacks (detract from initial effect, i.e. pushing a ball up a hill. Onceyou stop pushing it, it will return to the bottom. Thus, system recovers):High temperature enhances evaporation which leads to increased cloud coverIncreased temperature leads to more rain and an increase in vegetationMineralsClassification of rocks depends on their properties:Texture (fine or coarse grained)Color (light or dark)Mineral contentHow they were formed (origin)How they were formed: Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphicFurther subdivisions based on: texture, mineralsBoth tell us conditions of rock formation (temperature and pressure)

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Term
Spring
Professor
Kodama
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