BIO_115_communication_behavior_intro

BIO_115_communication_behavior_intro - Announcements Exam 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Announcements Exam 2 on Friday Review session today at 4 p.m. Biology seminar is Friday at 3:30 p.m. Last day to drop course without grade is Monday What is behavior? A rapid and appropriate response to an environmental stimulus What is behavior? A rapid and appropriate response to an environmental stimulus... How do they do this? Proximate causation What is behavior? A rapid and appropriate response to an environmental stimulus... Why do they do this? Ultimate causation Comparative Psychology Studied a limited range of behaviors (maze learning, task learning, appetitive behavior, avoidance behavior, etc.) In a limited number of species Usually in captivity Comparative Psychology the "Skinner Box" 1 Ethology primarily European, in the 1940s and 1950s Emphasized studies of wild animals under natural conditions (honeybees, ducks, geese, wolves, gulls, wasps...) Studied a broad range of behavioral phenomena (communication, aggression, territoriality, learning, navigation, migration...) Nobel Prize 1973 three European ethologists Nobel Prize 1973 Karl von Frisch... Nobel Prize 1973 Von Frisch studied communication in honeybees... Nobel Prize 1973 The "waggle dance" of a foraging worker tells her sisters about the food source Nobel Prize 1973 Konrad Lorenz 2 Nobel Prize 1973 Lorenz studied aggression in canids (dogs, wolves) Nobel Prize 1973 Lorenz studied aggression in canids (dogs) and learning in birds Nobel Prize 1973 Lorenz studied aggression in canids (dogs) Nobel Prize 1973 Nikolas Tinbergen and learning in birds Imprinting: irreversible learning that occurs early in ontogeny during a brief "critical period" Nobel Prize 1973 Niko Tinbergen emphasized experiments and use of the "comparative method" method" Introduction to behavior The comparative method takes advantage of divergent evolution and convergent evolution to assess the evolutionary effect of the environment on behavior and other phenotypes... 3 Introduction to behavior Divergent evolution phylogenetically closely related species in different environments... Convergent evolution phylogenetically distantly related species in similar environments... Fixed Action Patterns stereotyped behaviors innate "fixed" because they are always done completely once begun Fixed Action Patterns stereotyped behaviors innate "fixed" because they are always done completely once begun elicited by "releasers" Is behavior determined by genes or experience? Is behavior controlled by genes? Lovebird Experiment Agapornis fischeri Holds nest material in beak Do genes influence human behavior? Agapornis roseicollis Holds nest material in flank feathers Hybrid Shift nest material between beak and flank feathers 4 Behavioral Genetics Effect of genetics Behavioral Genetics Effect of environment MZT MZA r = 1.0 DZT DZA r = 0.5 raised together raised apart Behavioral Genetics Behavioral Genetics personality trait well being social potency achievement social closeness stress reaction aggression control absorption harm avoidance traditionalism heritability 0.48 0.59 0.39 0.40 0.53 0.44 0.44 0.50 0.55 0.45 Animal Communication What is communication? A signal of some sort is sent from a sender to a receiver The behavior of the receiver is altered by perception of the signal Sender and receiver may or may not be conspecifics Fitness (RS) of sender and/or receiver is altered by the interaction... 5 Types of Communication In cooperative communication, both communication, sender and receiver benefit in fitness Types of Communication In cooperative communication, both communication, sender and receiver benefit in fitness "dance language" of honeybees Types of Communication In cooperative communication, communication, both sender and receiver benefit in fitness For instance the "dance language" of honeybees Sender and receiver are usually conspecifics Types of Communication In competitive communication, either communication, the sender or the receiver benefits in fitness sender and receiver are conspecifics for instance aggressive interactions between male elephant seals Types of Communication In competitive communication, either communication, the sender or the receiver benefits in fitness sender and receiver are conspecifics for instance aggressive interactions between male painted buntings In some instances, the sender sends a signal that is "designed" to deceive the receiver Types of Communication 6 Types of Communication In some instances, the sender sends a signal that is "designed" to deceive the receiver BIO 115: Introduction to Behavior and Communication Types of Communication In "deceptive "deceptive communication", the communication", sender benefits to the detriment of the receiver Types of Communication In some instances, an unintended receiver intercepts a sender's signal, and exploits the signal to benefit the receiver In "exploitative communication", the receiver benefits to the detriment of the sender Kauai cricket Types of Communication Channels of Communication 7 Channels of Communication Olfactory communication involves the use of odors or chemical signals Channels of Communication These chemical signals are called pheromones Channels of Communication Releaser pheromones have an immediate effect on the behavior of the receiver Channels of Communication Short term releaser pheromones act quickly and dissipate quickly Alarm pheromones of bees, wasps, and ants Channels of Communication Long term releaser pheromones act slowly and dissipate slowly Sex attractant pheromones of moths... moths... Channels of Communication Long term releaser pheromones act slowly and dissipate slowly Sex attractant pheromones of moths and snakes 8 Channels of Communication Long term releaser pheromones act slowly and dissipate slowly Trail pheromones of ants Channels of Communication Primer pheromones alter the physiology of the receiver so that subsequent behavior is altered queen pheromone in honeybees Channels of Communication Primer pheromones alter the physiology of the receiver so that subsequent behavior is altered sex pheromones rodents and other mammals Channels of Communication Do humans have pheromones? Channels of Communication Do humans have pheromones? Channels of Communication Auditory communication Use of sounds as signals 9 Channels of Communication Channels of Communication Channels of Communication Auditory communication can be used over long distances Channels of Communication Pitch, loudness, duration, pattern are all important Channels of Communication Channels of Communication Tactile communication involves physical contact between individuals 10 Channels of Communication Tactile communication involves physical contact between individuals Channels of Communication Tactile communication can be used only in close proximity for instance allogrooming in primates Channels of Communication Tactile communication can be used only in close proximity Channels of Communication Tactile communication is used extensively in courtship and copulation for instance allogrooming in primates Channels of Communication Tactile communication is used extensively in courtship and copulation Animals use different channels of communication either sequentially or simultaneously Channels of Communication Visual communication uses vision; displays of various sorts 11 Visual communication Channels of Communication Channels of Communication Color, posture, ornaments, and movements are important and are often used simultaneously Color, posture, movements, and ornaments are important Channels of Communication Color, posture, ornaments, and movements are important; species are often sexually dimorphic Channels of Communication Visual displays are often combined with auditory ones (simultaneous use of two channels) Channels of Communication Visual communication Many primates use facial expressions Channels of Communication Visual communication Many primates use facial expressions some of these are also bizarre and dramatic 12 Channels of Communication bright and contrasting colors are important Functions of communication Species recognition Functions of communication Conspecific aggregation Functions of communication Social group recognition Functions of communication Kin recognition (rodents, social insects) Functions of communication Individual recognition (birds, lizards, primates, etc.) 13 Functions of communication Coordination of activities (foraging, reproduction, hatching, migration...) Functions of communication Courtship and copulation Functions of communication Species recognition Conspecific aggregation Social group recognition Kin recognition Individual recognition Coordination of activities Courtship and copulation Intraspecific aggression (territoriality, dominance, spacing...) Functions of communication Species recognition Conspecific aggregation Social group recognition Kin recognition Individual recognition Coordination of activities Courtship and copulation Intraspecific aggression Many others... 14 ...
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